Green Approach to Overcome the Resistance Pattern of Candida spp. Using Biosynthesized Silver Nanoparticles Fabricated by Penicillium chrysogenum F9.Biol Trace Elem Res. 2021 Feb; 199(2):800-811.BT
Candida species are the most common causative agents responsible for the majority of morbidity as well as mortality rates due to invasive fungal infections worldwide. In this study, a green approach was developed to control the pathogenic Candida spp. isolated from clinical samples, and prior data collections, ethics approval was obtained. Sixty candida isolates were obtained from the different device-associated infections and identified as Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida glabrata with prevalence rates 41.6, 38.3, 8.3, 6.6, and 5%, respectively. On the other hand, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were extra-cellular synthesized by biomass filtrate of previously identified Penicillium chrysogenum strain F9. The physico-chemical characterizations of biosynthesized Ag-NPs were assessed by using UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, transmission electron microscope (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DIS), and zeta potential (ζ) analysis. Data revealed successful synthesis of crystallographic spherical Ag-NPs with average size 18 to 60 nm at maximum absorption peak 415 nm. FT-IR analysis confirmed the presence of functional groups related to reduction, capping, and stabilizing Ag-NPs. The DLS analysis showed that NPs were homogenous and stable with poly-dispersity index (PDI) and ζ value 0.008 and - 21 mV, respectively. Susceptibility pattern analysis revealed that sixty Candida isolates (100%) were susceptible to Ag-NPs as compared to 25 isolates (41.6%), and 30 isolates (50%) were susceptible to fluconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. Interestingly, 30 Candida isolates (50%) were resistant to amphotericin B, which are more than those recorded for fluconazole (17 isolates with percent 28.3%), while 18 candida isolates (30%) were susceptible dose-dependent to fluconazole. The recorded minimum inhibitory concentration 50/90 (MIC50/90) was 62.5/125, 16/64, and 1/4 for Ag-NPs, fluconazole, and amphotericin B, respectively. However, green synthesized Ag-NPs can be used to overcome the resistance pattern of Candida spp., and recommended as an anti-candida agent.