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Detection of Mitragynine in Mitragyna Speciosa (Kratom) Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy with Handheld Devices.
J Forensic Sci. 2020 Sep; 65(5):1443-1449.JF

Abstract

A simple, quick, selective, sensitive, and effective field-friendly method capable of being used by nonexperts has been developed for detecting mitragynine in Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Over 100 samples and blanks (known to be either positive or negative for the presence of mitragynine) were examined in duplicate using five identical handheld Raman spectrometers, which provided a data set of over 1,000 examinations. Based on the results of these analyses, the method yielded a true-positive rate of 99.3%, a true-negative rate of 97.9%, a false-positive rate of 2.1%, and a false-negative rate of 0.7%. The average minimum detectable concentration (Cm) of mitragynine that reproducibly yielded a match for one of the library spectra on all five instruments was determined to be 342 ng/mL (ppb). This Cm value is a conservative estimate considering that the extraction process was not fully optimized by this study, which was not necessary since the Cm value achieved was well below typical mitragynine concentrations in kratom (1.3-2.3%). The method is ideal (i) for prioritizing samples for additional testing using other more time-consuming laboratory-based techniques needed to detect and quantify mitragynine and (ii) for field use at international mail facility (IMF) satellite laboratories to help interdict kratom and prevent this dangerous product from reaching the U.S. supply chain.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Forensic Chemistry Center, Office of Regulatory Science, Office of Regulatory Affairs, U.S. Food & Drug Administration, Cincinnati, OH, 45237.Forensic Chemistry Center, Office of Regulatory Science, Office of Regulatory Affairs, U.S. Food & Drug Administration, Cincinnati, OH, 45237.Forensic Chemistry Center, Office of Regulatory Science, Office of Regulatory Affairs, U.S. Food & Drug Administration, Cincinnati, OH, 45237.Forensic Chemistry Center, Office of Regulatory Science, Office of Regulatory Affairs, U.S. Food & Drug Administration, Cincinnati, OH, 45237.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32453477

Citation

Lanzarotta, Adam, et al. "Detection of Mitragynine in Mitragyna Speciosa (Kratom) Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy With Handheld Devices." Journal of Forensic Sciences, vol. 65, no. 5, 2020, pp. 1443-1449.
Lanzarotta A, Thatcher MD, Lorenz LM, et al. Detection of Mitragynine in Mitragyna Speciosa (Kratom) Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy with Handheld Devices. J Forensic Sci. 2020;65(5):1443-1449.
Lanzarotta, A., Thatcher, M. D., Lorenz, L. M., & Batson, J. S. (2020). Detection of Mitragynine in Mitragyna Speciosa (Kratom) Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy with Handheld Devices. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 65(5), 1443-1449. https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14457
Lanzarotta A, et al. Detection of Mitragynine in Mitragyna Speciosa (Kratom) Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy With Handheld Devices. J Forensic Sci. 2020;65(5):1443-1449. PubMed PMID: 32453477.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Detection of Mitragynine in Mitragyna Speciosa (Kratom) Using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy with Handheld Devices. AU - Lanzarotta,Adam, AU - Thatcher,Michael D, AU - Lorenz,Lisa M, AU - Batson,JaCinta S, Y1 - 2020/05/26/ PY - 2020/01/16/received PY - 2020/04/02/revised PY - 2020/04/28/accepted PY - 2020/5/27/pubmed PY - 2020/5/27/medline PY - 2020/5/27/entrez KW - forensic chemistry KW - handheld Raman spectrometers KW - kratom KW - mitragynine KW - opioid KW - surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy SP - 1443 EP - 1449 JF - Journal of forensic sciences JO - J Forensic Sci VL - 65 IS - 5 N2 - A simple, quick, selective, sensitive, and effective field-friendly method capable of being used by nonexperts has been developed for detecting mitragynine in Mitragyna speciosa (kratom) using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Over 100 samples and blanks (known to be either positive or negative for the presence of mitragynine) were examined in duplicate using five identical handheld Raman spectrometers, which provided a data set of over 1,000 examinations. Based on the results of these analyses, the method yielded a true-positive rate of 99.3%, a true-negative rate of 97.9%, a false-positive rate of 2.1%, and a false-negative rate of 0.7%. The average minimum detectable concentration (Cm) of mitragynine that reproducibly yielded a match for one of the library spectra on all five instruments was determined to be 342 ng/mL (ppb). This Cm value is a conservative estimate considering that the extraction process was not fully optimized by this study, which was not necessary since the Cm value achieved was well below typical mitragynine concentrations in kratom (1.3-2.3%). The method is ideal (i) for prioritizing samples for additional testing using other more time-consuming laboratory-based techniques needed to detect and quantify mitragynine and (ii) for field use at international mail facility (IMF) satellite laboratories to help interdict kratom and prevent this dangerous product from reaching the U.S. supply chain. SN - 1556-4029 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32453477/Detection_of_Mitragynine_in_Mitragyna_Speciosa__Kratom__Using_Surface_Enhanced_Raman_Spectroscopy_with_Handheld_Devices_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.14457 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -