PSA, stage, grade and prostate cancer specific mortality in Asian American patients relative to Caucasians according to the United States Census Bureau race definitions.World J Urol. 2020 May 26 [Online ahead of print]WJ
The United States Census Bureau recommends distinguishing between "Asians" vs. "Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders" (NHOPI). We tested for prognostic differences according to this stratification in patients with prostate cancer (PCa) of all stages.
Descriptive statistics, time-trend analyses, Kaplan-Meier plots and multivariate Cox regression models were used to test for differences at diagnosis, as well as for cancer specific mortality (CSM) according to the Census Bureau's definition in either non-metastatic or metastatic patients vs. 1:4 propensity score (PS)-matched Caucasian controls, identified within the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database (2004-2016).
Of all 380,705 PCa patients, NHOPI accounted for 1877 (0.5%) vs. 23,343 (6.1%) remaining Asians vs. 93.4% Caucasians. NHOPI invariably harbored worse PCa characteristics at diagnosis. The rates of PSA ≥ 20 ng/ml, Gleason ≥ 8, T3/T4, N1- and M1 stages were highest for NHOPI, followed by Asians, followed by Caucasians (PSA ≥ 20: 18.4 vs. 14.8 vs. 10.2%, Gleason ≥ 8: 24.9 vs. 22.1, vs. 15.9%, T3/T4: 5.5 vs. 4.2 vs. 3.5%, N1: 4.4 vs. 2.8, vs. 2.7%, M1: 8.3 vs. 4.9 vs. 3.9%). Despite the worst PCa characteristics at diagnosis, NHOPI did not exhibit worse CSM than Caucasians. Moreover, despite worse PCa characteristics, Asians exhibited more favorable CSM than Caucasians in comparisons that focussed on non-metastatic and on metastatic patients.
Our observations corroborate the validity of the distinction between NHOPI and Asian patients according to the Census Bureau's recommendation, since these two groups show differences in PSA, grade and stage characteristics at diagnosis in addition to exhibiting differences in CSM even after PS matching and multivariate adjustment.