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Intestinal parasitosis, anaemia and risk factors among pre-school children in Tigray region, northern Ethiopia.
BMC Infect Dis. 2020 May 27; 20(1):379.BI

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) and anaemia are major health problems. This study assessed the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections, anaemia and associated factors among pre-school children in rural areas of the Tigray region, northern Ethiopia.

METHODS

A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 610 pre-school children in rural communities of Northern Ethiopia from June 2017 to August 2017. Stool specimens were examined for the presence of trophozoites, cysts, oocysts, and ova using direct, formal-ethyl acetate concentration, Kato-Katz, and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Haemoglobin was measured using a HemoCue spectrometer.

RESULTS

Among the 610 participating pre-school children in the study, the prevalence of IPIs and anaemia were 58% (95% conference interval (CI): 54.1-61.9%) and 21.6% (95% CI: 18.5-25.1%), respectively. Single, double, and triple parasitic infections were seen in 249 (41, 95% CI: 37-45%), 83 (14, 95% CI: 11-17%), and 22 (3.6, 95% CI: 2.4-5.4%) children, respectively. Of the seven intestinal parasitic organisms recorded from the participants, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the most prevalent 220 (36.1%) followed by Giardia lamblia 128 (20.1%), and Hymenolepis nana 102 (16.7%). Mixed infections were common among G. lamblia, E. histolytica/dispar and Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst. Intestinal parasitic infection prevalence increased from 47% in children aged 6-11 months to 66% in those aged 48-59 months; the prevalence ratio (PR) associated with a one-year increase in age was 1.08 (95% CI: 1.02-1.14, p = 0.009). Age-adjusted prevalence was higher in children who had been dewormed (PR = 1.2; 95% CI: 1.00-1.4, p = 0.045), and lower in households having two or more children aged under five (PR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61-0.95, p = 0.015). Anaemia rose from 28% in children aged 6-11 months to 43% in those aged 12-23 months, then fell continuously with age, reaching 7% in those aged 48-59 months. Age adjusted, anaemia was more prevalent in households using proper disposal of solid waste (PR = 1.5, 95% CI: 0.1-2.10, p = 0.009) while eating raw meat (PR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.45-0.54, p = 0.000), any maternal education (PR = 0.64 95% CI: 0.52-0.79, p = 0.000), and household water treatment (PR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.56-1.0, p = 0.044) were associated with lower prevalence of anaemia.

CONCLUSIONS

More than half of the children were infected with intestinal parasites, while anaemia prevalence was concentrated in the 12-23 month age group. This study has identified a number of potentially modifiable risk factors to address the significant prevalence of IPIs and anaemia in these children. Improvements in sanitation, clean water, hand hygiene, maternal education could address both short and long-term consequences of these conditions in this vulnerable population.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Tigray, Ethiopia. araya13e25@gmail.com.Department of Biology, College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Mekelle University, Tigray, Ethiopia.Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, College of Health Sciences, Mekelle University, Tigray, Ethiopia.Department of Chemical and Environmental Technology, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, C/ Tulipán s/n, 28933 Móstoles, Madrid, Spain.Department of Environmental Health, College of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Tigray, Ethiopia.Department of Physiology and Medical Physics, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), Dublin 2, Ireland.Data Science Centre, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland (RCSI), Dublin 2, Ireland.Department of Bio Statistics, College of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Tigray, Ethiopia.Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Health Sciences, Aksum University, Tigray, Ethiopia.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32460777

Citation

Wasihun, Araya Gebreyesus, et al. "Intestinal Parasitosis, Anaemia and Risk Factors Among Pre-school Children in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia." BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 20, no. 1, 2020, p. 379.
Wasihun AG, Teferi M, Negash L, et al. Intestinal parasitosis, anaemia and risk factors among pre-school children in Tigray region, northern Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis. 2020;20(1):379.
Wasihun, A. G., Teferi, M., Negash, L., Marugán, J., Yemane, D., McGuigan, K. G., Conroy, R. M., Abebe, H. T., & Dejene, T. A. (2020). Intestinal parasitosis, anaemia and risk factors among pre-school children in Tigray region, northern Ethiopia. BMC Infectious Diseases, 20(1), 379. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05101-8
Wasihun AG, et al. Intestinal Parasitosis, Anaemia and Risk Factors Among Pre-school Children in Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis. 2020 May 27;20(1):379. PubMed PMID: 32460777.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Intestinal parasitosis, anaemia and risk factors among pre-school children in Tigray region, northern Ethiopia. AU - Wasihun,Araya Gebreyesus, AU - Teferi,Mekonen, AU - Negash,Letemichal, AU - Marugán,Javier, AU - Yemane,Dejen, AU - McGuigan,Kevin G, AU - Conroy,Ronan M, AU - Abebe,Haftu Temesgen, AU - Dejene,Tsehaye Asmelash, Y1 - 2020/05/27/ PY - 2019/10/01/received PY - 2020/05/17/accepted PY - 2020/5/29/entrez PY - 2020/5/29/pubmed PY - 2020/8/1/medline KW - Anaemia KW - Intestinal parasitic infections KW - Pre-school age children KW - Risk factors, Ethiopia SP - 379 EP - 379 JF - BMC infectious diseases JO - BMC Infect Dis VL - 20 IS - 1 N2 - BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) and anaemia are major health problems. This study assessed the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections, anaemia and associated factors among pre-school children in rural areas of the Tigray region, northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among 610 pre-school children in rural communities of Northern Ethiopia from June 2017 to August 2017. Stool specimens were examined for the presence of trophozoites, cysts, oocysts, and ova using direct, formal-ethyl acetate concentration, Kato-Katz, and Ziehl-Neelsen techniques. Haemoglobin was measured using a HemoCue spectrometer. RESULTS: Among the 610 participating pre-school children in the study, the prevalence of IPIs and anaemia were 58% (95% conference interval (CI): 54.1-61.9%) and 21.6% (95% CI: 18.5-25.1%), respectively. Single, double, and triple parasitic infections were seen in 249 (41, 95% CI: 37-45%), 83 (14, 95% CI: 11-17%), and 22 (3.6, 95% CI: 2.4-5.4%) children, respectively. Of the seven intestinal parasitic organisms recorded from the participants, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar was the most prevalent 220 (36.1%) followed by Giardia lamblia 128 (20.1%), and Hymenolepis nana 102 (16.7%). Mixed infections were common among G. lamblia, E. histolytica/dispar and Cryptosporidium spp. oocyst. Intestinal parasitic infection prevalence increased from 47% in children aged 6-11 months to 66% in those aged 48-59 months; the prevalence ratio (PR) associated with a one-year increase in age was 1.08 (95% CI: 1.02-1.14, p = 0.009). Age-adjusted prevalence was higher in children who had been dewormed (PR = 1.2; 95% CI: 1.00-1.4, p = 0.045), and lower in households having two or more children aged under five (PR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61-0.95, p = 0.015). Anaemia rose from 28% in children aged 6-11 months to 43% in those aged 12-23 months, then fell continuously with age, reaching 7% in those aged 48-59 months. Age adjusted, anaemia was more prevalent in households using proper disposal of solid waste (PR = 1.5, 95% CI: 0.1-2.10, p = 0.009) while eating raw meat (PR = 0.49, 95% CI: 0.45-0.54, p = 0.000), any maternal education (PR = 0.64 95% CI: 0.52-0.79, p = 0.000), and household water treatment (PR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.56-1.0, p = 0.044) were associated with lower prevalence of anaemia. CONCLUSIONS: More than half of the children were infected with intestinal parasites, while anaemia prevalence was concentrated in the 12-23 month age group. This study has identified a number of potentially modifiable risk factors to address the significant prevalence of IPIs and anaemia in these children. Improvements in sanitation, clean water, hand hygiene, maternal education could address both short and long-term consequences of these conditions in this vulnerable population. SN - 1471-2334 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32460777/Intestinal_parasitosis_anaemia_and_risk_factors_among_pre_school_children_in_Tigray_region_northern_Ethiopia_ L2 - https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-020-05101-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -