Controls to Minimize Disruption of the Pharmaceutical Supply Chain During the COVID-19 Pandemic.PDA J Pharm Sci Technol. 2020 Jul-Aug; 74(4):468-494.PJ
This article reviews currently available scientific literature related to the epidemiology, infectivity, survival, and susceptibility to disinfectants of Coronaviruses, in the context of the controls established to meet good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations and guidance, and the public health guidance issued specifically to combat the COVID-19 pandemic. The possible impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the pharmaceutical supply chain is assessed and recommendations are listed for risk mitigation steps to minimize supply disruption to pharmaceutical drug products. Areas addressed include a brief history of the COVID-19 viral pandemic, a description of the virus, the regulatory response to the pandemic, the screening of employees, the persistence of the virus on inanimate surfaces, cleaning and disinfection of manufacturing facilities, the use of GMP-mandated personal protective equipment to counter the spread of the disease, the role of air changes in viral clearance, and approaches to risk assessment and mitigation. Biological medicinal products have a great record of safety, yet the cell cultures used for production can be susceptible to viruses, and contamination events have occurred. Studies on SARS-CoV-2 for it ability to replicate in various mammalian cell lines used for biopharmaceutical manufacturing suggests that the virus poses a low risk and any contamination would be detected by currently used adventitious virus testing. The consequences of the potential virus exposure of manufacturing processes as well as the effectiveness of mitigation efforts are discussed. The pharmaceutical supply chain is complex, traversing many geographies and companies that range from large multinationals to mid- and small-size operations. This paper recommends practices that can be adopted by all companies, irrespective of their size, geographic location, or position in the supply chain.