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Immune response in COVID-19: addressing a pharmacological challenge by targeting pathways triggered by SARS-CoV-2.
Signal Transduct Target Ther. 2020 05 29; 5(1):84.ST

Abstract

To date, no vaccines or effective drugs have been approved to prevent or treat COVID-19 and the current standard care relies on supportive treatments. Therefore, based on the fast and global spread of the virus, urgent investigations are warranted in order to develop preventive and therapeutic drugs. In this regard, treatments addressing the immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 infection have become a major focus. Notably, while a rapid and well-coordinated immune response represents the first line of defense against viral infection, excessive inflammatory innate response and impaired adaptive host immune defense may lead to tissue damage both at the site of virus entry and at systemic level. Several studies highlight relevant changes occurring both in innate and adaptive immune system in COVID-19 patients. In particular, the massive cytokine and chemokine release, the so-called "cytokine storm", clearly reflects a widespread uncontrolled dysregulation of the host immune defense. Although the prospective of counteracting cytokine storm is compelling, a major limitation relies on the limited understanding of the immune signaling pathways triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection. The identification of signaling pathways altered during viral infections may help to unravel the most relevant molecular cascades implicated in biological processes mediating viral infections and to unveil key molecular players that may be targeted. Thus, given the key role of the immune system in COVID-19, a deeper understanding of the mechanism behind the immune dysregulation might give us clues for the clinical management of the severe cases and for preventing the transition from mild to severe stages.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Drug Sciences (Pharmacology Section), University of Pavia, V.le Taramelli 14, 27100, Pavia, Italy.Department of Drug Sciences (Pharmacology Section), University of Pavia, V.le Taramelli 14, 27100, Pavia, Italy. Scuola Universitaria Superiore IUSS Pavia, P.zza Vittoria, 15, 27100, Pavia, Italy.Department of Drug Sciences (Pharmacology Section), University of Pavia, V.le Taramelli 14, 27100, Pavia, Italy.Laboratory of Toxicology, Department of Environmental and Political Sciences, Università Degli Studi di Milano, Via Balzaretti 9, 20133, Milano, Italy.Department of Drug Sciences (Pharmacology Section), University of Pavia, V.le Taramelli 14, 27100, Pavia, Italy.Department of Drug Sciences (Pharmacology Section), University of Pavia, V.le Taramelli 14, 27100, Pavia, Italy. cristina.lanni@unipv.it.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32467561

Citation

Catanzaro, Michele, et al. "Immune Response in COVID-19: Addressing a Pharmacological Challenge By Targeting Pathways Triggered By SARS-CoV-2." Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, vol. 5, no. 1, 2020, p. 84.
Catanzaro M, Fagiani F, Racchi M, et al. Immune response in COVID-19: addressing a pharmacological challenge by targeting pathways triggered by SARS-CoV-2. Signal Transduct Target Ther. 2020;5(1):84.
Catanzaro, M., Fagiani, F., Racchi, M., Corsini, E., Govoni, S., & Lanni, C. (2020). Immune response in COVID-19: addressing a pharmacological challenge by targeting pathways triggered by SARS-CoV-2. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 5(1), 84. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-0191-1
Catanzaro M, et al. Immune Response in COVID-19: Addressing a Pharmacological Challenge By Targeting Pathways Triggered By SARS-CoV-2. Signal Transduct Target Ther. 2020 05 29;5(1):84. PubMed PMID: 32467561.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Immune response in COVID-19: addressing a pharmacological challenge by targeting pathways triggered by SARS-CoV-2. AU - Catanzaro,Michele, AU - Fagiani,Francesca, AU - Racchi,Marco, AU - Corsini,Emanuela, AU - Govoni,Stefano, AU - Lanni,Cristina, Y1 - 2020/05/29/ PY - 2020/04/28/received PY - 2020/05/08/accepted PY - 2020/05/08/revised PY - 2020/5/30/entrez PY - 2020/5/30/pubmed PY - 2020/6/13/medline SP - 84 EP - 84 JF - Signal transduction and targeted therapy JO - Signal Transduct Target Ther VL - 5 IS - 1 N2 - To date, no vaccines or effective drugs have been approved to prevent or treat COVID-19 and the current standard care relies on supportive treatments. Therefore, based on the fast and global spread of the virus, urgent investigations are warranted in order to develop preventive and therapeutic drugs. In this regard, treatments addressing the immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 infection have become a major focus. Notably, while a rapid and well-coordinated immune response represents the first line of defense against viral infection, excessive inflammatory innate response and impaired adaptive host immune defense may lead to tissue damage both at the site of virus entry and at systemic level. Several studies highlight relevant changes occurring both in innate and adaptive immune system in COVID-19 patients. In particular, the massive cytokine and chemokine release, the so-called "cytokine storm", clearly reflects a widespread uncontrolled dysregulation of the host immune defense. Although the prospective of counteracting cytokine storm is compelling, a major limitation relies on the limited understanding of the immune signaling pathways triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection. The identification of signaling pathways altered during viral infections may help to unravel the most relevant molecular cascades implicated in biological processes mediating viral infections and to unveil key molecular players that may be targeted. Thus, given the key role of the immune system in COVID-19, a deeper understanding of the mechanism behind the immune dysregulation might give us clues for the clinical management of the severe cases and for preventing the transition from mild to severe stages. SN - 2059-3635 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32467561/Immune_response_in_COVID_19:_addressing_a_pharmacological_challenge_by_targeting_pathways_triggered_by_SARS_CoV_2_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-0191-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -