An instrument for the evaluation of muscle dysmorphia: The Italian validation of the adonis complex questionnaire.Brain Behav. 2020 Jul; 10(7):e01666.BB
BACKGROUND AND AIMS
Muscle dysmorphia (MDM), or bigorexia, is a subcategory of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), also known as "Adonis Complex" in nonscientific contexts. One of the most used tools to investigate MDM is the Adonis Complex Questionnaire (ACQ). The ACQ is a 13-item US questionnaire, designed for male subjects only, related to the dissatisfaction and concerns about physical appearance. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the validity of the Italian version of the ACQ.
The instrument was administered to a sample of 322 male adults, recruited from the general population. We used the maximum-likelihood confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA), analyzing the covariance matrices with AMOS 24.0, to evaluate the different factorial models proposed in the literature.
The evaluation of the factorial structure of the Italian version of the ACQ demonstrates the greater stability and internal consistency of the two-factor model, compared to the original three-factor model. The factors have no correlation with the demographic characteristics of the sample.
The present study confirms the validity and the reliability of the Italian two-factor version of the ACQ and highlights the general tendency, among Italian males, to have concerns about their own physical appearance with recurring thoughts and eating behaviors finalized to improve it. Our study represents an advance in the use of adequate and reliable instruments to assess concerns about physical appearance in the Italian male population.