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An instrument for the evaluation of muscle dysmorphia: The Italian validation of the adonis complex questionnaire.
Brain Behav. 2020 Jul; 10(7):e01666.BB

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND AIMS

Muscle dysmorphia (MDM), or bigorexia, is a subcategory of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), also known as "Adonis Complex" in nonscientific contexts. One of the most used tools to investigate MDM is the Adonis Complex Questionnaire (ACQ). The ACQ is a 13-item US questionnaire, designed for male subjects only, related to the dissatisfaction and concerns about physical appearance. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the validity of the Italian version of the ACQ.

METHODS

The instrument was administered to a sample of 322 male adults, recruited from the general population. We used the maximum-likelihood confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA), analyzing the covariance matrices with AMOS 24.0, to evaluate the different factorial models proposed in the literature.

RESULTS

The evaluation of the factorial structure of the Italian version of the ACQ demonstrates the greater stability and internal consistency of the two-factor model, compared to the original three-factor model. The factors have no correlation with the demographic characteristics of the sample.

CONCLUSIONS

The present study confirms the validity and the reliability of the Italian two-factor version of the ACQ and highlights the general tendency, among Italian males, to have concerns about their own physical appearance with recurring thoughts and eating behaviors finalized to improve it. Our study represents an advance in the use of adequate and reliable instruments to assess concerns about physical appearance in the Italian male population.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, Coppito (AQ), Italy.Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, Coppito (AQ), Italy.Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, Coppito (AQ), Italy.Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, Coppito (AQ), Italy.Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, Coppito (AQ), Italy.Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, Coppito (AQ), Italy.Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, Coppito (AQ), Italy.Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, Coppito (AQ), Italy.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32469110

Citation

Riccobono, Giulia, et al. "An Instrument for the Evaluation of Muscle Dysmorphia: the Italian Validation of the Adonis Complex Questionnaire." Brain and Behavior, vol. 10, no. 7, 2020, pp. e01666.
Riccobono G, Pompili A, Iorio C, et al. An instrument for the evaluation of muscle dysmorphia: The Italian validation of the adonis complex questionnaire. Brain Behav. 2020;10(7):e01666.
Riccobono, G., Pompili, A., Iorio, C., Carducci, G., Parnanzone, S., Pizziconi, G., Iannitelli, A., & Pacitti, F. (2020). An instrument for the evaluation of muscle dysmorphia: The Italian validation of the adonis complex questionnaire. Brain and Behavior, 10(7), e01666. https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1666
Riccobono G, et al. An Instrument for the Evaluation of Muscle Dysmorphia: the Italian Validation of the Adonis Complex Questionnaire. Brain Behav. 2020;10(7):e01666. PubMed PMID: 32469110.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - An instrument for the evaluation of muscle dysmorphia: The Italian validation of the adonis complex questionnaire. AU - Riccobono,Giulia, AU - Pompili,Assunta, AU - Iorio,Carla, AU - Carducci,Giorgio, AU - Parnanzone,Serena, AU - Pizziconi,Giulia, AU - Iannitelli,Angela, AU - Pacitti,Francesca, Y1 - 2020/05/29/ PY - 2019/12/26/received PY - 2020/03/21/revised PY - 2020/04/25/accepted PY - 2020/5/30/pubmed PY - 2020/5/30/medline PY - 2020/5/30/entrez KW - adonis complex questionnaire KW - bigorexia KW - body image KW - muscle dysmorphia KW - reverse anorexia SP - e01666 EP - e01666 JF - Brain and behavior JO - Brain Behav VL - 10 IS - 7 N2 - BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Muscle dysmorphia (MDM), or bigorexia, is a subcategory of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), also known as "Adonis Complex" in nonscientific contexts. One of the most used tools to investigate MDM is the Adonis Complex Questionnaire (ACQ). The ACQ is a 13-item US questionnaire, designed for male subjects only, related to the dissatisfaction and concerns about physical appearance. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the validity of the Italian version of the ACQ. METHODS: The instrument was administered to a sample of 322 male adults, recruited from the general population. We used the maximum-likelihood confirmatory factorial analysis (CFA), analyzing the covariance matrices with AMOS 24.0, to evaluate the different factorial models proposed in the literature. RESULTS: The evaluation of the factorial structure of the Italian version of the ACQ demonstrates the greater stability and internal consistency of the two-factor model, compared to the original three-factor model. The factors have no correlation with the demographic characteristics of the sample. CONCLUSIONS: The present study confirms the validity and the reliability of the Italian two-factor version of the ACQ and highlights the general tendency, among Italian males, to have concerns about their own physical appearance with recurring thoughts and eating behaviors finalized to improve it. Our study represents an advance in the use of adequate and reliable instruments to assess concerns about physical appearance in the Italian male population. SN - 2162-3279 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32469110/An_instrument_for_the_evaluation_of_muscle_dysmorphia:_The_Italian_validation_of_the_adonis_complex_questionnaire L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.1666 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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