Gellan gum-based hydrogel containing nanocapsules for vaginal indole-3-carbinol delivery in trichomoniasis treatment.Eur J Pharm Sci. 2020 Aug 01; 151:105379.EJ
Trichomonas vaginalis infection is the STI most common worldwide. Indole-3-carbinol (I3C) is a phytochemical presenting promising biological activities. In this study, design, formulation, and evaluation of a vaginal hydrogel containing I3C-loaded nanocapsules for the treatment of trichomoniasis have been investigated. Nanocapsules of Eudragit® RS100 and rosehip oil containing I3C (NC-I3C) were prepared by interfacial deposition of preformed polymer method. In vitro evaluations showed that free I3C (IC50 = 3.36 µg/mL) was able to reduce the trophozoites viability at higher concentrations (3.13 and 6.25 µg/mL), while nanoencapsulation (IC50 = 2.09 µg/mL) reduced the viability at all concentrations evaluated. Comparing free and nanoencapsulated I3C, we observe that nanoencapsulation improved anti-T. vaginalis activity. In order to obtain a formulation for vaginal administration, hydrogels (HG-NC-I3C) were prepared by thickening the NC-I3C with gellan gum. HG-NC-I3C presented particle size below 195 nm, low polydispersity index (<0.2), I3C content = 0.50 ± 0.01 mg/g, pH = 7.05, non-Newtonian pseudoplastic flow behavior and exhibited mucoadhesion to cow's vaginal mucosa. Evaluation of irritation potential by chorioallantoic membrane method indicated that the formulations are considered non-irritating. Besides that, permeation through the cow's vaginal mucosa showed that nanoencapsulation promoted I3C controlled release. This way, the developed HG-NC-I3C can be considered a promising approach for trichomoniasis treatment through vaginal administration.