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Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of phthalate esters in agricultural soil and vegetables in the Yangtze River Delta of China.
Sci Total Environ. 2020 Jul 15; 726:137978.ST

Abstract

As an important environmental reservoir of phthalate esters (PAEs), soil-plant system constitutes a key exposure pathway to human health. In this study, agricultural soil and vegetable samples were collected from the Yangtze River Delta (approximately 211,700 km2), one of the most developed regions in China, to determine the contamination characteristics of priority PAEs. The total concentrations of six PAEs ranged from 5.42 to 1580 ng·g-1 dry weight in soils and from 10.9 to 16,400 ng·g-1 dry weight in vegetables. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) accounted for 88.3% and 61.9% of the total PAEs in soils and vegetables, respectively. The spatial distribution of PAEs in the soils was as follows: Shanghai city (70.8-1583 ng·g-1 dw) > Anhui province (46.8-1530 ng·g-1 dw) > Jiangsu province (14.4-558 ng·g-1 dw) > Zhejiang province (5.40-488 ng·g-1 dw). Non-cancer risks exist for adults and children in 6.5% and 7.8% of the sites, respectively. Carcinogenic risks were regarded unacceptable in 5.6% and 1.3% of the sites for adults and children, respectively. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of PAEs showed positive correlation with lipid content of vegetables. A basic reference of the lipid-content threshold to guarantee the safety of leafy vegetables was proposed based on partition-limited model. We suggested to cultivate vegetables with lipid content <0.21% in most heavily contaminated area in the region. This study provides information for effectively controlling PAEs contamination in soil-plant system in developed districts.

Authors+Show Affiliations

College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou 310058, China.College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou 310058, China.College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Pollution Processes and Control, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology, Maoming, Guangdong 525000, China.College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China; Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory of Organic Pollution Process and Control, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address: zlz@zju.edu.cn.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32481218

Citation

Wei, Luyun, et al. "Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Phthalate Esters in Agricultural Soil and Vegetables in the Yangtze River Delta of China." The Science of the Total Environment, vol. 726, 2020, p. 137978.
Wei L, Li Z, Sun J, et al. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of phthalate esters in agricultural soil and vegetables in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Sci Total Environ. 2020;726:137978.
Wei, L., Li, Z., Sun, J., & Zhu, L. (2020). Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of phthalate esters in agricultural soil and vegetables in the Yangtze River Delta of China. The Science of the Total Environment, 726, 137978. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.137978
Wei L, et al. Pollution Characteristics and Health Risk Assessment of Phthalate Esters in Agricultural Soil and Vegetables in the Yangtze River Delta of China. Sci Total Environ. 2020 Jul 15;726:137978. PubMed PMID: 32481218.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of phthalate esters in agricultural soil and vegetables in the Yangtze River Delta of China. AU - Wei,Luyun, AU - Li,Zhiheng, AU - Sun,Jianteng, AU - Zhu,Lizhong, Y1 - 2020/03/16/ PY - 2020/01/21/received PY - 2020/03/14/revised PY - 2020/03/15/accepted PY - 2020/6/3/entrez PY - 2020/6/3/pubmed PY - 2020/7/11/medline KW - Health risk KW - Phthalate esters KW - Pollution characteristics KW - Soils KW - Vegetables SP - 137978 EP - 137978 JF - The Science of the total environment JO - Sci Total Environ VL - 726 N2 - As an important environmental reservoir of phthalate esters (PAEs), soil-plant system constitutes a key exposure pathway to human health. In this study, agricultural soil and vegetable samples were collected from the Yangtze River Delta (approximately 211,700 km2), one of the most developed regions in China, to determine the contamination characteristics of priority PAEs. The total concentrations of six PAEs ranged from 5.42 to 1580 ng·g-1 dry weight in soils and from 10.9 to 16,400 ng·g-1 dry weight in vegetables. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) accounted for 88.3% and 61.9% of the total PAEs in soils and vegetables, respectively. The spatial distribution of PAEs in the soils was as follows: Shanghai city (70.8-1583 ng·g-1 dw) > Anhui province (46.8-1530 ng·g-1 dw) > Jiangsu province (14.4-558 ng·g-1 dw) > Zhejiang province (5.40-488 ng·g-1 dw). Non-cancer risks exist for adults and children in 6.5% and 7.8% of the sites, respectively. Carcinogenic risks were regarded unacceptable in 5.6% and 1.3% of the sites for adults and children, respectively. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) of PAEs showed positive correlation with lipid content of vegetables. A basic reference of the lipid-content threshold to guarantee the safety of leafy vegetables was proposed based on partition-limited model. We suggested to cultivate vegetables with lipid content <0.21% in most heavily contaminated area in the region. This study provides information for effectively controlling PAEs contamination in soil-plant system in developed districts. SN - 1879-1026 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32481218/Pollution_characteristics_and_health_risk_assessment_of_phthalate_esters_in_agricultural_soil_and_vegetables_in_the_Yangtze_River_Delta_of_China_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0048-9697(20)31491-1 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -