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COVID-19 pandemic and mental health consequences: Systematic review of the current evidence.
Brain Behav Immun. 2020 10; 89:531-542.BB

Abstract

BACKGROUND

During the COVID-19 pandemic general medical complications have received the most attention, whereas only few studies address the potential direct effect on mental health of SARS-CoV-2 and the neurotropic potential. Furthermore, the indirect effects of the pandemic on general mental health are of increasing concern, particularly since the SARS-CoV-1 epidemic (2002-2003) was associated with psychiatric complications.

METHODS

We systematically searched the database Pubmed including studies measuring psychiatric symptoms or morbidities associated with COVID-19 among infected patients and among none infected groups the latter divided in psychiatric patients, health care workers and non-health care workers.

RESULTS

A total of 43 studies were included. Out of these, only two studies evaluated patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection, whereas 41 evaluated the indirect effect of the pandemic (2 on patients with preexisting psychiatric disorders, 20 on medical health care workers, and 19 on the general public). 18 of the studies were case-control studies/compared to norm, while 25 of the studies had no control groups. The two studies investigating COVID-19 patients found a high level of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) (96.2%) and significantly higher level of depressive symptoms (p = 0.016). Patients with preexisting psychiatric disorders reported worsening of psychiatric symptoms. Studies investigating health care workers found increased depression/depressive symptoms, anxiety, psychological distress and poor sleep quality. Studies of the general public revealed lower psychological well-being and higher scores of anxiety and depression compared to before COVID-19, while no difference when comparing these symptoms in the initial phase of the outbreak to four weeks later. A variety of factors were associated with higher risk of psychiatric symptoms and/or low psychological well-being including female gender, poor-self-related health and relatives with COVID-19.

CONCLUSION

Research evaluating the direct neuropsychiatric consequences and the indirect effects on mental health is highly needed to improve treatment, mental health care planning and for preventive measures during potential subsequent pandemics.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Copenhagen Research Centre for Mental Health - CORE, Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte Hospitalsvej 15, 4. sal, 2900 Hellerup, Denmark; Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark.Copenhagen Research Centre for Mental Health - CORE, Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Copenhagen University Hospital, Gentofte Hospitalsvej 15, 4. sal, 2900 Hellerup, Denmark; Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen N, Denmark. Electronic address: Michael.eriksen.benros@regionh.dk.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32485289

Citation

Vindegaard, Nina, and Michael Eriksen Benros. "COVID-19 Pandemic and Mental Health Consequences: Systematic Review of the Current Evidence." Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, vol. 89, 2020, pp. 531-542.
Vindegaard N, Benros ME. COVID-19 pandemic and mental health consequences: Systematic review of the current evidence. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;89:531-542.
Vindegaard, N., & Benros, M. E. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic and mental health consequences: Systematic review of the current evidence. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 89, 531-542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.048
Vindegaard N, Benros ME. COVID-19 Pandemic and Mental Health Consequences: Systematic Review of the Current Evidence. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;89:531-542. PubMed PMID: 32485289.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - COVID-19 pandemic and mental health consequences: Systematic review of the current evidence. AU - Vindegaard,Nina, AU - Benros,Michael Eriksen, Y1 - 2020/05/30/ PY - 2020/05/14/received PY - 2020/05/16/revised PY - 2020/05/16/accepted PY - 2020/6/3/pubmed PY - 2020/10/23/medline PY - 2020/6/3/entrez KW - COVID-19 KW - Mental health KW - Mental health disorders KW - Psychiatry KW - SARS-CoV-2 SP - 531 EP - 542 JF - Brain, behavior, and immunity JO - Brain Behav Immun VL - 89 N2 - BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic general medical complications have received the most attention, whereas only few studies address the potential direct effect on mental health of SARS-CoV-2 and the neurotropic potential. Furthermore, the indirect effects of the pandemic on general mental health are of increasing concern, particularly since the SARS-CoV-1 epidemic (2002-2003) was associated with psychiatric complications. METHODS: We systematically searched the database Pubmed including studies measuring psychiatric symptoms or morbidities associated with COVID-19 among infected patients and among none infected groups the latter divided in psychiatric patients, health care workers and non-health care workers. RESULTS: A total of 43 studies were included. Out of these, only two studies evaluated patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection, whereas 41 evaluated the indirect effect of the pandemic (2 on patients with preexisting psychiatric disorders, 20 on medical health care workers, and 19 on the general public). 18 of the studies were case-control studies/compared to norm, while 25 of the studies had no control groups. The two studies investigating COVID-19 patients found a high level of post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) (96.2%) and significantly higher level of depressive symptoms (p = 0.016). Patients with preexisting psychiatric disorders reported worsening of psychiatric symptoms. Studies investigating health care workers found increased depression/depressive symptoms, anxiety, psychological distress and poor sleep quality. Studies of the general public revealed lower psychological well-being and higher scores of anxiety and depression compared to before COVID-19, while no difference when comparing these symptoms in the initial phase of the outbreak to four weeks later. A variety of factors were associated with higher risk of psychiatric symptoms and/or low psychological well-being including female gender, poor-self-related health and relatives with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Research evaluating the direct neuropsychiatric consequences and the indirect effects on mental health is highly needed to improve treatment, mental health care planning and for preventive measures during potential subsequent pandemics. SN - 1090-2139 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32485289/COVID_19_pandemic_and_mental_health_consequences:_Systematic_review_of_the_current_evidence_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0889-1591(20)30954-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -