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Vegans, Vegetarians, and Omnivores: How Does Dietary Choice Influence Iodine Intake? A Systematic Review.
Nutrients. 2020 May 29; 12(6)N

Abstract

Vegan and vegetarian diets are becoming increasingly popular. Dietary restrictions may increase the risk of iodine deficiency. This systematic review aims to assess iodine intake and status in adults following a vegan or vegetarian diet in industrialised countries. A systematic review and quality assessment were conducted in the period May 2019-April 2020 according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Studies were identified in Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and secondary sources. Fifteen articles met inclusion criteria. Participants included 127,094 adults (aged ≥ 18 years). Vegan groups presented the lowest median urinary iodine concentrations, followed by vegetarians, and did not achieve optimal status. The highest iodine intakes were recorded in female vegans (1448.0 ± 3879.0 µg day-1) and the lowest in vegetarians (15.6 ± 21.0 µg day-1). Omnivores recorded the greatest intake in 83% of studies. Seaweed contributed largely to diets of vegans with excessive iodine intake. Vegans appear to have increased risk of low iodine status, deficiency and inadequate intake compared with adults following less restrictive diets. Adults following vegan and vegetarian diets living in countries with a high prevalence of deficiency may be more vulnerable. Therefore, further monitoring of iodine status in industrialised countries and research into improving the iodine intake and status of adults following vegan and vegetarian diets is required.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Food, Nutrition & Dietetics, School of Biosciences, The University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington LE12 5RD, UK.Division of Food, Nutrition & Dietetics, School of Biosciences, The University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington LE12 5RD, UK.Division of Food, Nutrition & Dietetics, School of Biosciences, The University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington LE12 5RD, UK.Division of Food, Nutrition & Dietetics, School of Biosciences, The University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington LE12 5RD, UK.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32486114

Citation

Eveleigh, Elizabeth R., et al. "Vegans, Vegetarians, and Omnivores: How Does Dietary Choice Influence Iodine Intake? a Systematic Review." Nutrients, vol. 12, no. 6, 2020.
Eveleigh ER, Coneyworth LJ, Avery A, et al. Vegans, Vegetarians, and Omnivores: How Does Dietary Choice Influence Iodine Intake? A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2020;12(6).
Eveleigh, E. R., Coneyworth, L. J., Avery, A., & Welham, S. J. M. (2020). Vegans, Vegetarians, and Omnivores: How Does Dietary Choice Influence Iodine Intake? A Systematic Review. Nutrients, 12(6). https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061606
Eveleigh ER, et al. Vegans, Vegetarians, and Omnivores: How Does Dietary Choice Influence Iodine Intake? a Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2020 May 29;12(6) PubMed PMID: 32486114.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Vegans, Vegetarians, and Omnivores: How Does Dietary Choice Influence Iodine Intake? A Systematic Review. AU - Eveleigh,Elizabeth R, AU - Coneyworth,Lisa J, AU - Avery,Amanda, AU - Welham,Simon J M, Y1 - 2020/05/29/ PY - 2020/05/04/received PY - 2020/05/24/revised PY - 2020/05/26/accepted PY - 2020/6/4/entrez PY - 2020/6/4/pubmed PY - 2021/3/2/medline KW - iodine deficiency KW - iodine intake KW - iodine status KW - vegan KW - vegetarian JF - Nutrients JO - Nutrients VL - 12 IS - 6 N2 - Vegan and vegetarian diets are becoming increasingly popular. Dietary restrictions may increase the risk of iodine deficiency. This systematic review aims to assess iodine intake and status in adults following a vegan or vegetarian diet in industrialised countries. A systematic review and quality assessment were conducted in the period May 2019-April 2020 according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Studies were identified in Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and secondary sources. Fifteen articles met inclusion criteria. Participants included 127,094 adults (aged ≥ 18 years). Vegan groups presented the lowest median urinary iodine concentrations, followed by vegetarians, and did not achieve optimal status. The highest iodine intakes were recorded in female vegans (1448.0 ± 3879.0 µg day-1) and the lowest in vegetarians (15.6 ± 21.0 µg day-1). Omnivores recorded the greatest intake in 83% of studies. Seaweed contributed largely to diets of vegans with excessive iodine intake. Vegans appear to have increased risk of low iodine status, deficiency and inadequate intake compared with adults following less restrictive diets. Adults following vegan and vegetarian diets living in countries with a high prevalence of deficiency may be more vulnerable. Therefore, further monitoring of iodine status in industrialised countries and research into improving the iodine intake and status of adults following vegan and vegetarian diets is required. SN - 2072-6643 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32486114/Vegans_Vegetarians_and_Omnivores:_How_Does_Dietary_Choice_Influence_Iodine_Intake_A_Systematic_Review_ L2 - https://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=nu12061606 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -