Association of explanatory histological findings and urinary protein and serum creatinine levels at renal biopsy in lupus nephritis: a cross-sectional study.BMC Nephrol. 2020 Jun 01; 21(1):208.BN
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between the histology of active and chronic lesions and urinary protein and serum creatinine (SCr) levels, as common clinical endpoints in clinical trials for lupus nephritis (LN).
In total, 119 patients diagnosed with LN class III, IV, and V, as defined by the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society, between 1990 and 2015, were enrolled in the present study. Multiple regression analysis was performed to explore semi-quantitative histological variables associated with urinary protein and SCr levels.
The mean age of the enrolled patients was 45 years, and 79% were female. The mean SCr and mean urinary protein levels at the time of renal biopsy were 0.87 mg/dl and 3.00 g/gCr, respectively. Class IV (71%) was the most common type of LN followed by class III (17%), and class V (13%). Multicollinearity was confirmed between monocellular infiltration (variance inflation factor [VIF] = 10.22) and interstitial fibrosis (VIF = 10.29), and between karyorrhexis (VIF = 4.14) and fibrinoid necrosis (VIF = 4.29). Fibrinoid necrosis and monocellular infiltration were subsequently excluded, and multiple regression analysis revealed that only the urinary protein level was correlated with wire loop lesions (β-coefficient [β]: 1.09 and confidence interval [CI]: 0.35 to 1.83), and that the SCr level was correlated with glomerular sclerosis (β: 1.08 and CI: 0.43 to 1.74).
As urinary protein and SCr levels were not quantitatively associated with active lesions, they may not accurately reflect the response to remission induction therapy in patients with LN.