Sex differences in the frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms and olfactory or taste disorders in 1942 nonhospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).Pol Arch Intern Med. 2020 06 25; 130(6):501-505.PA
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) is a communicable disease caused by a novel coronavirus.
This study aimed to assess self‑reported frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms and olfactory or taste disorders in nonhospitalized patients with COVID‑19 in Poland.
PATIENTS AND METHODS
This cross‑sectional survey was conducted between April 17 and 18, 2020, in 4516 nonhospitalized patients with COVID‑19 in Poland. The questionnaire included 8 questions related to the health status, symptoms of COVID‑19, comorbidities, and smoking status.
Completed questionnaires were obtained from 1942 patients with COVID‑19 with a response rate of 43%. The median age of the respondents was 50 years; 60.2% were women. Among nonhospitalized patients with COVID‑19, 21.3% had hypertension, 4.5% had diabetes, and 3.1% had a chronic respiratory disease. Regular tobacco use was declared by 11.2% of patients with COVID‑19. At least one gastrointestinal symptom was reported by 53.6% of patients. Almost half of patients (47%) with COVID‑19 reported lack of appetite and 24.2% reported diarrhea. Among 1942 interviewed patients, 54.2% reported at least 1 olfactory or taste disorder and 42.5% reported both alterations. Self‑reported olfactory and taste disorders were 49.2% and 47.5%, respectively. Self‑reported frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms and olfactory or taste disorders during COVID‑19 was significantly higher (P <0.001) in women than men.
This study demonstrated that olfactory and taste disorders are frequent symptoms in patients with mild‑to‑moderate COVID‑19. Moreover, our study indicated sex differences in the frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms and olfactory or taste disorders among nonhospitalized patients with COVID‑19.