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Snake Toxicity

Abstract
Venomous snakes inflict considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, although specific data on the total number of venomous snakebites globally are lacking. In the United States, approximately 7,000 to 8,000 venomous snakebites occur each year, with about 5 to 10 deaths reported per year, although there is no mandated reporting for snakebites, so these data are likely incomplete. Notably, bees are responsible for significantly more deaths than snakes in the United States.[1][2] Patients with venomous snakebites present with signs and symptoms that can include superficial puncture wounds, localized pain and swelling, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramping, dizziness, numbness, tingling around the mouth, dyspnea, life-threatening coagulopathy, and shock. Pre-hospital treatments, including the application of ice, alcohol consumption, and wound incisions and oral suction of venom, are not recommended. Evidence supports initial conservative management, such as immobilization and lymphatic constriction bands, calming the patient, and encouraging oral fluid intake prior to rapid evacuation to an emergency center where definitive care can be rendered. Initial assessment of the patient with a snakebite should include laboratory studies to evaluate for hematologic, neurologic, renal, and cardiovascular derangements. Antivenom is the definitive treatment, although the specific type of antivenom depends on the snake species. The previously used horse-serum derived antivenom has now largely been replaced by sheep-derived Fab antivenom (FabAV).[1][2][3]

Publisher

StatPearls Publishing
Treasure Island (FL)

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32491497

Citation

Meyers SE, Tadi P: Snake Toxicity. StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing, 2020, Treasure Island (FL).
Meyers SE, Tadi P. Snake Toxicity. StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing; 2020.
Meyers SE & Tadi P. (2020). Snake Toxicity. In StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing
Meyers SE, Tadi P. Snake Toxicity. StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - CHAP T1 - Snake Toxicity BT - StatPearls A1 - Meyers,Stephen E., AU - Tadi,Prasanna, Y1 - 2020/01// PY - 2020/6/4/pubmed PY - 2020/6/4/medline PY - 2020/6/4/entrez N2 - Venomous snakes inflict considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, although specific data on the total number of venomous snakebites globally are lacking. In the United States, approximately 7,000 to 8,000 venomous snakebites occur each year, with about 5 to 10 deaths reported per year, although there is no mandated reporting for snakebites, so these data are likely incomplete. Notably, bees are responsible for significantly more deaths than snakes in the United States.[1][2] Patients with venomous snakebites present with signs and symptoms that can include superficial puncture wounds, localized pain and swelling, nausea, vomiting, muscle cramping, dizziness, numbness, tingling around the mouth, dyspnea, life-threatening coagulopathy, and shock. Pre-hospital treatments, including the application of ice, alcohol consumption, and wound incisions and oral suction of venom, are not recommended. Evidence supports initial conservative management, such as immobilization and lymphatic constriction bands, calming the patient, and encouraging oral fluid intake prior to rapid evacuation to an emergency center where definitive care can be rendered. Initial assessment of the patient with a snakebite should include laboratory studies to evaluate for hematologic, neurologic, renal, and cardiovascular derangements. Antivenom is the definitive treatment, although the specific type of antivenom depends on the snake species. The previously used horse-serum derived antivenom has now largely been replaced by sheep-derived Fab antivenom (FabAV).[1][2][3] PB - StatPearls Publishing CY - Treasure Island (FL) UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32491497/StatPearls:_Snake_Toxicity L2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557565 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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