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Volkmann Contracture

Abstract
Volkmann contracture, also known as Volkmann ischemic contracture is a claw-like deformity of the hand named after the 19-century German doctor, Richard von Volkmann. The name Volkmann ischemic contracture is self-explanatory. Ischemic refers to the possible etiology, and contracture indicates shortening. This condition is a permanent flexion deformity at the wrist and fingers that results in a claw-like presentation of the hand. This presentation is due to the permanent shortening of the flexor group of muscles in the forearm and thus may result in pain on passive flexion of the wrist and fingers. The upper limb can be divided into three sections: arm, forearm, and hand.[1] The principal bone of the arm, humerus, connects the ulna and radius (bones of the forearm) with the scapula. The forearm extends from the elbow to the wrist and has two groups of muscles, the anterior flexor group, and the posterior extensor group. These muscles are responsible for movements at the wrist, metacarpophalangeal joints, and interphalangeal joints. These muscles are supplied by the branches of the brachial artery. The brachial artery courses down the humerus runs through the elbow and then divides into the two terminal arteries, the radial, and ulnar arteries. Out of these two terminal branches, the ulnar artery is responsible for the blood supply of the flexor group of muscles.[2] The flexor group of muscles in the anterior forearm may be divided into two groups: a superficial group and a deep group. The superficial group consists of: 1. Pronator teres. 2. Flexor carpi radialis. 3. Flexor digitorum superficialis. 4. Palmaris longus. 5. Flexor carpi ulnaris. The deep group consists of: 1. Flexor pollicis longus. 2. Pronator quadratus. 3. Flexor digitorum profundus. All these muscles are innervated by the median nerve, with the exceptions being flexor carpi ulnaris (innervated by the ulnar nerve) and flexor digitorum profundus sharing a dual nerve supply from both ulnar and median nerves. Both these groups are involved in the development of Volkmann ischemic contracture.

Publisher

StatPearls Publishing
Treasure Island (FL)

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32491686

Citation

Mirza TM, Shrestha AB: Volkmann Contracture. StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing, 2020, Treasure Island (FL).
Mirza TM, Shrestha AB. Volkmann Contracture. StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing; 2020.
Mirza TM & Shrestha AB. (2020). Volkmann Contracture. In StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing
Mirza TM, Shrestha AB. Volkmann Contracture. StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2020.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - CHAP T1 - Volkmann Contracture BT - StatPearls A1 - Mirza,Taaha M., AU - Shrestha,Ayush B., Y1 - 2020/01// PY - 2020/6/4/pubmed PY - 2020/6/4/medline PY - 2020/6/4/entrez N2 - Volkmann contracture, also known as Volkmann ischemic contracture is a claw-like deformity of the hand named after the 19-century German doctor, Richard von Volkmann. The name Volkmann ischemic contracture is self-explanatory. Ischemic refers to the possible etiology, and contracture indicates shortening. This condition is a permanent flexion deformity at the wrist and fingers that results in a claw-like presentation of the hand. This presentation is due to the permanent shortening of the flexor group of muscles in the forearm and thus may result in pain on passive flexion of the wrist and fingers. The upper limb can be divided into three sections: arm, forearm, and hand.[1] The principal bone of the arm, humerus, connects the ulna and radius (bones of the forearm) with the scapula. The forearm extends from the elbow to the wrist and has two groups of muscles, the anterior flexor group, and the posterior extensor group. These muscles are responsible for movements at the wrist, metacarpophalangeal joints, and interphalangeal joints. These muscles are supplied by the branches of the brachial artery. The brachial artery courses down the humerus runs through the elbow and then divides into the two terminal arteries, the radial, and ulnar arteries. Out of these two terminal branches, the ulnar artery is responsible for the blood supply of the flexor group of muscles.[2] The flexor group of muscles in the anterior forearm may be divided into two groups: a superficial group and a deep group. The superficial group consists of: 1. Pronator teres. 2. Flexor carpi radialis. 3. Flexor digitorum superficialis. 4. Palmaris longus. 5. Flexor carpi ulnaris. The deep group consists of: 1. Flexor pollicis longus. 2. Pronator quadratus. 3. Flexor digitorum profundus. All these muscles are innervated by the median nerve, with the exceptions being flexor carpi ulnaris (innervated by the ulnar nerve) and flexor digitorum profundus sharing a dual nerve supply from both ulnar and median nerves. Both these groups are involved in the development of Volkmann ischemic contracture. PB - StatPearls Publishing CY - Treasure Island (FL) UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32491686/StatPearls:_Volkmann_Contracture L2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK557754 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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