Spatio-temporal distribution and associated factors of home delivery in Ethiopia. Further multilevel and spatial analysis of Ethiopian demographic and health surveys 2005-2016.BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2020 Jun 03; 20(1):342.BP
Globally, between 2012 and 2017, 80% of live births occurred at health facilities assisted by skilled health personnel. In Ethiopia, in 2016 only 26% of live births attended by skilled health personal. This study aimed to assess the spatial patterns and associated factors of home delivery in Ethiopia using 2005, 2011, and 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys.
A total of 33,482 women who gave live birth in the 5 years preceding each survey were included for this study. ArcGIS version 10.7 software was used to visualize the spatial distribution of home delivery. The Bernoulli model was applied using Kilduff SaTScan version 9.6 software to identify significant purely spatial clusters for home delivery in Ethiopia. A multilevel logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with home delivery. A p-value < 0.05 was taken to declare statistically significant predictors.
Home delivery was declined from 94.78% in 2005, 90.05% in 2011, and 73.44% in 2016 in Ethiopia. Among the three surveys, consistently high clustering of home delivery was observed in Amhara and Southern Nations Nationalities and People's Regions (SNNPR) of Ethiopia. In spatial scan statistics analysis, a total of 128 clusters (RR = 1.04, P-value < 0.001) in 2005, and 90 clusters (RR = 1.11, P-value < 0.001) in 2011, and 55 clusters (RR = 1.29, P-value < 0.001) in 2016 significant primary clusters were identified. Educational status of women and husband, religion, distance to the health facility, mobile access, antenatal care visit, birth order, parity, wealth index, residence, and Region were statistically significant predictors of home delivery.
The spatial distribution of home delivery among the three consecutive surveys were non-random in Ethiopia. Educational status of women and husband, religion, distance to the health facility, wealth index, residence, parity, mobile access, Region, and antenatal care visit were statistically significant predictors of home delivery in Ethiopia. Therefore, an intervention needs to improve the coverage of antenatal care visit, and health care facilities. Ministry of health and other stakeholders should give special attention to women living in Amhara and SNNPR states of Ethiopia.