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Distribution of ACE2, CD147, CD26, and other SARS-CoV-2 associated molecules in tissues and immune cells in health and in asthma, COPD, obesity, hypertension, and COVID-19 risk factors.
Allergy. 2020 11; 75(11):2829-2845.A

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 caused by novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is accelerating worldwide, and novel clinical presentations of COVID-19 are often reported. The range of human cells and tissues targeted by SARS-CoV-2, its potential receptors and associated regulating factors are still largely unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the expression of known and potential SARS-CoV-2 receptors and related molecules in the extensive collection of primary human cells and tissues from healthy subjects of different age and from patients with risk factors and known comorbidities of COVID-19.

METHODS

We performed RNA sequencing and explored available RNA-Seq databases to study gene expression and co-expression of ACE2, CD147 (BSG), and CD26 (DPP4) and their direct and indirect molecular partners in primary human bronchial epithelial cells, bronchial and skin biopsies, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), monocytes, neutrophils, DCs, NK cells, ILC1, ILC2, ILC3, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and plasmablasts. We analyzed the material from healthy children and adults, and from adults in relation to their disease or COVID-19 risk factor status.

RESULTS

ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were coexpressed at the epithelial sites of the lung and skin, whereas CD147 (BSG), cyclophilins (PPIA andPPIB), CD26 (DPP4), and related molecules were expressed in both epithelium and in immune cells. We also observed a distinct age-related expression profile of these genes in the PBMCs and T cells from healthy children and adults. Asthma, COPD, hypertension, smoking, obesity, and male gender status generally led to the higher expression of ACE2- and CD147-related genes in the bronchial biopsy, BAL, or blood. Additionally, CD147-related genes correlated positively with age and BMI. Interestingly, we also observed higher expression of CD147-related genes in the lesional skin of patients with atopic dermatitis.

CONCLUSIONS

Our data suggest different receptor repertoire potentially involved in the SARS-CoV-2 infection at the epithelial barriers and in the immune cells. Altered expression of these receptors related to age, gender, obesity and smoking, as well as with the disease status, might contribute to COVID-19 morbidity and severity patterns.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland. Christine Kühne - Center for Research and Education (CK-CARE), Davos, Switzerland. Department of Regenerative Medicine and Immune Regulation, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland.Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland. Christine Kühne - Center for Research and Education (CK-CARE), Davos, Switzerland. Department of Allergology, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland. Functional Genomic Centre Zurich, ETH Zurich/University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland.Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland. Christine Kühne - Center for Research and Education (CK-CARE), Davos, Switzerland. Otorhinolaryngology Hospital, The First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland. Christine Kühne - Center for Research and Education (CK-CARE), Davos, Switzerland. Division of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry, University Children`s Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. Children`s Research Center, University Children`s Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland. Christine Kühne - Center for Research and Education (CK-CARE), Davos, Switzerland. Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing TongRen Hospital, Capital Medical University and the Beijing Key Laboratory of Nasal Diseases, Beijing Institute of Otolaryngology, Beijing, China.Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland. Department of Cancer Immunology, Institute for Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland. Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan.Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland. Christine Kühne - Center for Research and Education (CK-CARE), Davos, Switzerland.Chair and Institute of Environmental Medicine, UNIKA-T, Technical University of Munich and Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Augsburg, Germany.Chair and Institute of Environmental Medicine, UNIKA-T, Technical University of Munich and Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Augsburg, Germany. Institute of Computational Biology (ICB), Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Munich, Germany. Institute of Experimental Medicine (IEM), Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland. Christine Kühne - Center for Research and Education (CK-CARE), Davos, Switzerland.Christine Kühne - Center for Research and Education (CK-CARE), Davos, Switzerland. Chair and Institute of Environmental Medicine, UNIKA-T, Technical University of Munich and Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Augsburg, Germany.Sean N Parker Centre for Allergy and Asthma Research at Stanford University, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, USA.Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland. Department of Medicine and School of Microbiology, APC Microbiome Ireland, National University of Ireland, Cork, Ireland.Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland. Christine Kühne - Center for Research and Education (CK-CARE), Davos, Switzerland.Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, Davos, Switzerland. Christine Kühne - Center for Research and Education (CK-CARE), Davos, Switzerland.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32496587

Citation

Radzikowska, Urszula, et al. "Distribution of ACE2, CD147, CD26, and Other SARS-CoV-2 Associated Molecules in Tissues and Immune Cells in Health and in Asthma, COPD, Obesity, Hypertension, and COVID-19 Risk Factors." Allergy, vol. 75, no. 11, 2020, pp. 2829-2845.
Radzikowska U, Ding M, Tan G, et al. Distribution of ACE2, CD147, CD26, and other SARS-CoV-2 associated molecules in tissues and immune cells in health and in asthma, COPD, obesity, hypertension, and COVID-19 risk factors. Allergy. 2020;75(11):2829-2845.
Radzikowska, U., Ding, M., Tan, G., Zhakparov, D., Peng, Y., Wawrzyniak, P., Wang, M., Li, S., Morita, H., Altunbulakli, C., Reiger, M., Neumann, A. U., Lunjani, N., Traidl-Hoffmann, C., Nadeau, K. C., O'Mahony, L., Akdis, C., & Sokolowska, M. (2020). Distribution of ACE2, CD147, CD26, and other SARS-CoV-2 associated molecules in tissues and immune cells in health and in asthma, COPD, obesity, hypertension, and COVID-19 risk factors. Allergy, 75(11), 2829-2845. https://doi.org/10.1111/all.14429
Radzikowska U, et al. Distribution of ACE2, CD147, CD26, and Other SARS-CoV-2 Associated Molecules in Tissues and Immune Cells in Health and in Asthma, COPD, Obesity, Hypertension, and COVID-19 Risk Factors. Allergy. 2020;75(11):2829-2845. PubMed PMID: 32496587.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Distribution of ACE2, CD147, CD26, and other SARS-CoV-2 associated molecules in tissues and immune cells in health and in asthma, COPD, obesity, hypertension, and COVID-19 risk factors. AU - Radzikowska,Urszula, AU - Ding,Mei, AU - Tan,Ge, AU - Zhakparov,Damir, AU - Peng,Yaqi, AU - Wawrzyniak,Paulina, AU - Wang,Ming, AU - Li,Shuo, AU - Morita,Hideaki, AU - Altunbulakli,Can, AU - Reiger,Matthias, AU - Neumann,Avidan U, AU - Lunjani,Nonhlanhla, AU - Traidl-Hoffmann,Claudia, AU - Nadeau,Kari C, AU - O'Mahony,Liam, AU - Akdis,Cezmi, AU - Sokolowska,Milena, Y1 - 2020/08/24/ PY - 2020/05/13/received PY - 2020/05/20/revised PY - 2020/05/25/accepted PY - 2020/6/5/pubmed PY - 2020/12/15/medline PY - 2020/6/5/entrez KW - COPD KW - COVID-19 KW - COVID-19 children KW - SARS receptor KW - asthma KW - hypertension KW - obesity SP - 2829 EP - 2845 JF - Allergy JO - Allergy VL - 75 IS - 11 N2 - BACKGROUND: Morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 caused by novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is accelerating worldwide, and novel clinical presentations of COVID-19 are often reported. The range of human cells and tissues targeted by SARS-CoV-2, its potential receptors and associated regulating factors are still largely unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the expression of known and potential SARS-CoV-2 receptors and related molecules in the extensive collection of primary human cells and tissues from healthy subjects of different age and from patients with risk factors and known comorbidities of COVID-19. METHODS: We performed RNA sequencing and explored available RNA-Seq databases to study gene expression and co-expression of ACE2, CD147 (BSG), and CD26 (DPP4) and their direct and indirect molecular partners in primary human bronchial epithelial cells, bronchial and skin biopsies, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, whole blood, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), monocytes, neutrophils, DCs, NK cells, ILC1, ILC2, ILC3, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and plasmablasts. We analyzed the material from healthy children and adults, and from adults in relation to their disease or COVID-19 risk factor status. RESULTS: ACE2 and TMPRSS2 were coexpressed at the epithelial sites of the lung and skin, whereas CD147 (BSG), cyclophilins (PPIA andPPIB), CD26 (DPP4), and related molecules were expressed in both epithelium and in immune cells. We also observed a distinct age-related expression profile of these genes in the PBMCs and T cells from healthy children and adults. Asthma, COPD, hypertension, smoking, obesity, and male gender status generally led to the higher expression of ACE2- and CD147-related genes in the bronchial biopsy, BAL, or blood. Additionally, CD147-related genes correlated positively with age and BMI. Interestingly, we also observed higher expression of CD147-related genes in the lesional skin of patients with atopic dermatitis. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest different receptor repertoire potentially involved in the SARS-CoV-2 infection at the epithelial barriers and in the immune cells. Altered expression of these receptors related to age, gender, obesity and smoking, as well as with the disease status, might contribute to COVID-19 morbidity and severity patterns. SN - 1398-9995 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32496587/Distribution_of_ACE2_CD147_CD26_and_other_SARS_CoV_2_associated_molecules_in_tissues_and_immune_cells_in_health_and_in_asthma_COPD_obesity_hypertension_and_COVID_19_risk_factors_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/all.14429 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -