Spray-Drying Synthesis of MOFs, COFs, and Related Composites.Acc Chem Res. 2020 Jun 16; 53(6):1206-1217.AC
ConspectusMetal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are among the most attractive porous materials today. They exhibit outstanding porosity for countless applications such as gas storage, CO2 capture, gas separation, sensing, drug delivery, and catalysis. Moreover, researchers have recently begun to combine MOFs or COFs with other functional materials to obtain composites that boast the respective strengths, and mitigate the respective weaknesses, of each component, enabling enhanced performance in many of the aforementioned applications. Accordingly, development of methods for fabrication of MOFs, COFs, and related composites is important for facilitating adoption of these materials in industry. One promising synthetic technique is spray-drying, which is already well-integrated in manufacturing processes for diverse sectors. It enables rapid, continuous and scalable production of dry microspherical powders in a single step, leading to lower fabrication costs and shorter production times compared to traditional methods.In this Account, we outline our ongoing work on spray-drying synthesis of crystalline porous MOFs, COFs, and related composites. Versatile and tunable, spray-drying can be adapted to perform reactions involving coordination and covalent chemistry for the synthesis of micrometer spherical beads/superstructures of MOFs and COFs. Likewise, MOF- and COF-based composites can be synthesized using similar conditions as those for pure MOFs or COFs, through the simple introduction of additional functional materials into the feed precursor solution or colloid. Interestingly, spray-drying can also be done in water, thus providing the basis for its use as a scalable green method for industrial fabrication of these materials. To date, spray-drying has already been scaled up for pilot production (kilogram scale) of MOFs.