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The protective role of spirulina and β-glucan in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) against chronic toxicity of chlorpyrifos: hemato-biochemistry, histopathology, and oxidative stress traits.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Sep; 27(25):31636-31651.ES

Abstract

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an insecticide that is commonly applied in the agriculture sector. However, little is known about the protective role of Spirulina platensis (SP) and/or β-glucan (BG) on African catfish exposed to chronic CPF toxicity. The fish (95 ± 5 g, initial weight) were assigned to 5 fiberglass tanks (500 L, 50 fish/tank) where the 1st and 2nd fed the basal diet, while the 3rd, 4th, and 5th fed diets with SP, BG, and SP+BG at 0.5%, respectively. Fish in 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th groups were exposed to CPF at a dose of 1.5 mg/L and fed the respective diets for 60 days. In comparison with the control group, CPF-exposed fish exhibited significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) body weights, feed intake, red blood cells count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (PCV) (%), lymphocytes, monocytes, phagocytic activity, and phagocytic index, while feed conversion ratio, white blood cell count, and neutrophils count were significantly increased. Fish exposed to CPF also revealed a significant elevation in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), very-low-density lipoproteins (vLDL), glucose concentration, urea, and creatinine as well as low total proteins, albumin, globulins, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration. Fish exposed to CPF also exhibited a high concentration of malondialdehyde while glutathione content, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities were significantly decreased in the liver, gills, brain, and intestine tissues. Moreover, exposure to CPF resulted in higher transcription of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A-P450) gene expression than the 1st group. Histopathological investigations revealed various degrees of pathological lesions in different organs like the liver, kidney, brain, spleen, and intestine tissues. Interestingly, dietary SP supplementation either alone or combined with BG significantly ameliorated the alterations mitigated by CPF-induced organ injuries and genotoxicity. Therefore, it could be concluded that SP or/and BG are able to induce the protective consequences on health status, immunity, and antioxidative response of African catfish exposed to CPF.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt.Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt. Doaa_assar2000@yahoo.com.Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt.Fish Processing and Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Fisheries Sciences and Aquaculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt.Clinical Pathology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt.Fish Diseases Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt.Veterinary Research Division, National Research Centre, Giza, 12622, Egypt.Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Kafrelsheikh University, Kafr El-Sheikh, Egypt. mahmouddawood55@gmail.com.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32500495

Citation

Mokhbatly, Abd-Allah A., et al. "The Protective Role of Spirulina and Β-glucan in African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) Against Chronic Toxicity of Chlorpyrifos: Hemato-biochemistry, Histopathology, and Oxidative Stress Traits." Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, vol. 27, no. 25, 2020, pp. 31636-31651.
Mokhbatly AA, Assar DH, Ghazy EW, et al. The protective role of spirulina and β-glucan in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) against chronic toxicity of chlorpyrifos: hemato-biochemistry, histopathology, and oxidative stress traits. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020;27(25):31636-31651.
Mokhbatly, A. A., Assar, D. H., Ghazy, E. W., Elbialy, Z., Rizk, S. A., Omar, A. A., Gaafar, A. Y., & Dawood, M. A. O. (2020). The protective role of spirulina and β-glucan in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) against chronic toxicity of chlorpyrifos: hemato-biochemistry, histopathology, and oxidative stress traits. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International, 27(25), 31636-31651. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09333-8
Mokhbatly AA, et al. The Protective Role of Spirulina and Β-glucan in African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) Against Chronic Toxicity of Chlorpyrifos: Hemato-biochemistry, Histopathology, and Oxidative Stress Traits. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020;27(25):31636-31651. PubMed PMID: 32500495.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The protective role of spirulina and β-glucan in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) against chronic toxicity of chlorpyrifos: hemato-biochemistry, histopathology, and oxidative stress traits. AU - Mokhbatly,Abd-Allah A, AU - Assar,Doaa H, AU - Ghazy,Emad W, AU - Elbialy,Zizy, AU - Rizk,Sally A, AU - Omar,Amira A, AU - Gaafar,Alkhateib Y, AU - Dawood,Mahmoud A O, Y1 - 2020/06/04/ PY - 2020/01/03/received PY - 2020/05/14/accepted PY - 2020/6/6/pubmed PY - 2020/8/8/medline PY - 2020/6/6/entrez KW - African catfish KW - Antioxidative response KW - Chlorpyrifos KW - Spirulina KW - β-Glucan SP - 31636 EP - 31651 JF - Environmental science and pollution research international JO - Environ Sci Pollut Res Int VL - 27 IS - 25 N2 - Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an insecticide that is commonly applied in the agriculture sector. However, little is known about the protective role of Spirulina platensis (SP) and/or β-glucan (BG) on African catfish exposed to chronic CPF toxicity. The fish (95 ± 5 g, initial weight) were assigned to 5 fiberglass tanks (500 L, 50 fish/tank) where the 1st and 2nd fed the basal diet, while the 3rd, 4th, and 5th fed diets with SP, BG, and SP+BG at 0.5%, respectively. Fish in 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th groups were exposed to CPF at a dose of 1.5 mg/L and fed the respective diets for 60 days. In comparison with the control group, CPF-exposed fish exhibited significantly lower (P ≤ 0.05) body weights, feed intake, red blood cells count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume (PCV) (%), lymphocytes, monocytes, phagocytic activity, and phagocytic index, while feed conversion ratio, white blood cell count, and neutrophils count were significantly increased. Fish exposed to CPF also revealed a significant elevation in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), very-low-density lipoproteins (vLDL), glucose concentration, urea, and creatinine as well as low total proteins, albumin, globulins, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration. Fish exposed to CPF also exhibited a high concentration of malondialdehyde while glutathione content, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities were significantly decreased in the liver, gills, brain, and intestine tissues. Moreover, exposure to CPF resulted in higher transcription of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A-P450) gene expression than the 1st group. Histopathological investigations revealed various degrees of pathological lesions in different organs like the liver, kidney, brain, spleen, and intestine tissues. Interestingly, dietary SP supplementation either alone or combined with BG significantly ameliorated the alterations mitigated by CPF-induced organ injuries and genotoxicity. Therefore, it could be concluded that SP or/and BG are able to induce the protective consequences on health status, immunity, and antioxidative response of African catfish exposed to CPF. SN - 1614-7499 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32500495/The_protective_role_of_spirulina_and_β_glucan_in_African_catfish__Clarias_gariepinus__against_chronic_toxicity_of_chlorpyrifos:_hemato_biochemistry_histopathology_and_oxidative_stress_traits_ L2 - https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09333-8 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -