The Meaning of Immune Reconstitution after Alemtuzumab Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis.Cells. 2020 Jun 03; 9(6)C
Alemtuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to CD52, a protein present on the surface of mature lymphocytes, but not on the stem cells from which these lymphocytes are derived. It is currently used as an immune reconstitution therapy in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Alemtuzumab treatment is an intermittent infusion that induces long-term remission of Multiple Sclerosis also in the treatment-free period. After the robust T and B cell depletion induced by alemtuzumab, the immune system undergoes radical changes during its reconstitution. In this review, we will discuss the current knowledge on the reconstitution of the lymphocyte repertoire after alemtuzumab treatment and how it could affect the development of side effects, which led to its temporary suspension by the European Medical Agency.