Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes of Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease in Pediatric Patients with Hematologic Malignancies after T Cell-Replete Myeloablative Haploidentical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation with Antithymocyte Globulin/Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor.Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2020 Jun 03 [Online ahead of print]BB
The specific description, risk factors, and outcomes of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) in pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies after T cell-replete (TCR) myeloablative haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) with antithymocyte globulin (ATG)/granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) have not been previously well described. We retrospectively analyzed the incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of cGVHD documented according to the 2014 National Institutes of Health consensus criteria (NIH-CC) in 292 consecutive pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies after TCR myeloablative haplo-HSCT with ATG/G-CSF between January 2015 and December 2017. A total of 170 patients experienced cGVHD. The 3-year cumulative incidence of total cGVHD and mild, moderate, and severe cGVHD was 57.9%, 27.5%, 18.8%, and 11.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that acute GVHD (aGVHD) grade II-IV (hazard ratio, 1.578; P = .002) was an independent risk factor for cGVHD. Compared to patients without cGVHD, patients with cGVHD demonstrated a lower 3-year relapse (17.6% versus 27.2%; P = .009), a similar 3-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (5.9% versus 5.4%; P = .79), and better 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) (77.8% versus 66.9%; P = .007) and overall survival (OS) (81.3% versus 68.6%; P = .001), particularly those with mild or moderate cGVHD; however, no significant impact of severe cGVHD on relapse, NRM, DFS, or OS was seen. In conclusion, the incidence of severe cGVHD in pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies after TCR myeloablative haplo-HSCT with ATG/G-CSF was acceptable. Previous aGVHD grade II-IV was a risk factor for the occurrence of cGVHD. Only mild or moderate cGVHD was associated with a lower risk of relapse, translating into improved DFS and OS in pediatric patients with hematologic malignancies after TCR myeloablative haplo-HSCT with ATG/G-CSF.