Pulse modulation with Moses technology improves popcorn laser lithotripsy.World J Urol. 2020 Jun 06 [Online ahead of print]WJ
Moses™ technology has been developed to improve holmium laser fragmentation at 1-2 mm distance from the stone. Because popcorn lithotripsy is a non-contact technique, we compared short pulse (SP) and Moses distance (MD) modes in an in vitro model.
BegoStones were fragmented using a 120 W Ho:YAG laser (P120 Moses) and a 230 μm core fiber introduced through a ureteroscope. 20 W (1 J × 20 Hz; 0.5 J × 40 Hz) and 40 W (1 J × 40 Hz; 0.5 J × 80 Hz) settings (total energy 4.8 kJ) were tested using SP and MD modes. We assessed fragment size distribution and mass lost in fluid (initial mass-final dry mass of all sievable fragments). High-speed video analysis of fragmentation strike rate and vapor bubble characteristics was conducted for 1 J × 20 Hz and 0.5 J × 80 Hz. Laser strike rate (number of strikes divided by frequency) was categorized as: (1) direct-a visual plume of dust ejected from stone while in contact with fiber tip; (2) indirect-a visual plume of dust ejected with distance between stone and fiber tip.
For 1 J × 20 Hz (20 W), MD resulted in more mass lost in fluid and a lower distribution of fragments ≥ 2 mm compared to SP (p < 0.05). 0.5 J × 80 Hz (40 W) produced no fragments ≥ 2 mm, and there were no significant differences in fragment distribution between MD and SP (p = 0.34). When using MD at 1 J × 20 Hz, 96% of strikes were indirect vs 61% for SP (p = 0.059). In contrast to the single bubble of SP, with MD, there was forward movement of the collapsing second bubble, away from the fiber-tip.
For lower frequency and power popcorn settings, pulse modulation results in more fragmentation through true non-contact laser lithotripsy.