Three-Dimensional Biometric Weightbearing CT Evaluation of the Operative Treatment of Adult-Acquired Flatfoot Deformity.Foot Ankle Int. 2020 Aug; 41(8):930-936.FA
Assessment of operative correction of adult-acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD) has been traditionally performed by clinical evaluation and conventional radiographic imaging. Previously, a 3-dimensional biometric weightbearing computed tomography (WBCT) tool, the foot ankle offset (FAO), has been developed and validated in assessing hindfoot alignment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of FAO in evaluating operative deformity correction in AAFD.
In this prospective comparative study, 19 adult patients (20 feet) with stage II (flexible) flatfoot deformity underwent preoperative and postoperative standing WBCT examination at mean 19 months (range, 6-24) after surgery. Three-dimensional coordinates of the foot tripod and center of the ankle joint were acquired by 2 independent and blinded observers. These coordinates were used to calculate the FAO using dedicated software, and subsequently compared pre- and postoperatively. The FAO is a previously validated biometric measurement that represents centering of the foot tripod as well as hindfoot alignment, with a normal mean FAO of 2.3% ± 2.9%. In addition, Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) clinical outcomes scores were compared pre- and postoperatively with a mean follow-up of 22.6 months (range, 14-37).
There was significant correction of flatfoot deformity from a mean preoperative FAO of 9.8% to a mean postoperative value of 1.3% (P < .001). Additionally, there was statistically significant improvement in all PROMIS domains (P < .05), except depression, at an average follow-up of 22.6 months. Spring ligament reconstruction was the only procedure associated with a significant correction in FAO (P = .0064).
The FAO was a reliable and sensitive tool that was used to evaluate preoperative deformity as well as postoperative correction, with patients demonstrating both significant improvement in FAO as well as patient-reported outcomes. These findings demonstrate the role for biometric 3-dimensional WBCT imaging in assessing operative correction after flatfoot reconstruction, as well as the potential role for operative planning to address preoperative deformity.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE
Level II, prospective comparative study.