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A Comparison of Muscle Activation Among the Front Squat, Overhead Squat, Back Extension and Plank.
Int J Exerc Sci. 2020; 13(1):714-722.IJ

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle activation of the scapula, leg, and trunk among the front squat (FS), overhead squat (OHS), back extension (BE) and plank (PL). Seven recreationally trained men (age: 28 ± 3.6 years, body mass: 92 ± 26.1 kg, height: 175 ± 5.3 cm, 3-RM front squat test: 125 ± 49.8 kg, 3-RM overhead squat test: 91 ± 15.5 kg) participated in this within-subject crossover design. Two isometric exercises (plank and Biering-Sorenson back extension) were also included for trunk musculature comparisons. Neuromuscular activitation of the vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), thoracic region of erector spinae (ES), middle trapezius (MT), rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), serratus anterior (SA), and anterior deltoid (AD). The neuromuscular activity of the FS and OHS were analyzed using a 2 × 3 (squat variation X intensity) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Effects were further analyzed by Bonferroni corrected paired t-tests. Results showed that AD activity was significantly greater (p < .05) during the FS compared to OHS at 65 and 95% of the 3-RM, while MT activity was significantly greater (p < .05) during the OHS than the FS at 80 and 95% of the 3-RM. ES activity was significantly greater (p< .05) during both the FS and OHS compared to the BE, but PL elicited significantly greater EO and RA activity than both the FS and OHS. These findings reveal that the FS and OHS can help facilitate the activation of muscles supporting the shoulder complex, scapula and lower back.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Physiology of Exercise and Sport (PEXS) Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, California State University Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, USA.Physiology of Exercise and Sport (PEXS) Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, California State University Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, USA.Physiology of Exercise and Sport (PEXS) Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, California State University Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, USA.Physiology of Exercise and Sport (PEXS) Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, California State University Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, USA.Physiology of Exercise and Sport (PEXS) Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, California State University Long Beach, Long Beach, CA, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32509107

Citation

Bautista, David, et al. "A Comparison of Muscle Activation Among the Front Squat, Overhead Squat, Back Extension and Plank." International Journal of Exercise Science, vol. 13, no. 1, 2020, pp. 714-722.
Bautista D, Durke D, Cotter JA, et al. A Comparison of Muscle Activation Among the Front Squat, Overhead Squat, Back Extension and Plank. Int J Exerc Sci. 2020;13(1):714-722.
Bautista, D., Durke, D., Cotter, J. A., Escobar, K. A., & Schick, E. E. (2020). A Comparison of Muscle Activation Among the Front Squat, Overhead Squat, Back Extension and Plank. International Journal of Exercise Science, 13(1), 714-722.
Bautista D, et al. A Comparison of Muscle Activation Among the Front Squat, Overhead Squat, Back Extension and Plank. Int J Exerc Sci. 2020;13(1):714-722. PubMed PMID: 32509107.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - A Comparison of Muscle Activation Among the Front Squat, Overhead Squat, Back Extension and Plank. AU - Bautista,David, AU - Durke,Dustin, AU - Cotter,Joshua A, AU - Escobar,Kurt A, AU - Schick,Evan E, Y1 - 2020/05/01/ PY - 2020/6/9/entrez PY - 2020/6/9/pubmed PY - 2020/6/9/medline KW - Muscle Activation KW - Resistance Training KW - Squat KW - Strength SP - 714 EP - 722 JF - International journal of exercise science JO - Int J Exerc Sci VL - 13 IS - 1 N2 - The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle activation of the scapula, leg, and trunk among the front squat (FS), overhead squat (OHS), back extension (BE) and plank (PL). Seven recreationally trained men (age: 28 ± 3.6 years, body mass: 92 ± 26.1 kg, height: 175 ± 5.3 cm, 3-RM front squat test: 125 ± 49.8 kg, 3-RM overhead squat test: 91 ± 15.5 kg) participated in this within-subject crossover design. Two isometric exercises (plank and Biering-Sorenson back extension) were also included for trunk musculature comparisons. Neuromuscular activitation of the vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), thoracic region of erector spinae (ES), middle trapezius (MT), rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), serratus anterior (SA), and anterior deltoid (AD). The neuromuscular activity of the FS and OHS were analyzed using a 2 × 3 (squat variation X intensity) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Effects were further analyzed by Bonferroni corrected paired t-tests. Results showed that AD activity was significantly greater (p < .05) during the FS compared to OHS at 65 and 95% of the 3-RM, while MT activity was significantly greater (p < .05) during the OHS than the FS at 80 and 95% of the 3-RM. ES activity was significantly greater (p< .05) during both the FS and OHS compared to the BE, but PL elicited significantly greater EO and RA activity than both the FS and OHS. These findings reveal that the FS and OHS can help facilitate the activation of muscles supporting the shoulder complex, scapula and lower back. SN - 1939-795X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32509107/A_Comparison_of_Muscle_Activation_Among_the_Front_Squat_Overhead_Squat_Back_Extension_and_Plank_ L2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/32509107/ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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