SARS-CoV2 (COVID-19) Structural/Evolution Dynamicome: Insights into functional evolution and human genomics.bioRxiv. 2020 May 15B
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, starting in 2019, has challenged the speed at which labs perform science, ranging from discoveries of the viral composition to handling health outcomes in humans. The small ~30kb single-stranded RNA genome of Coronaviruses makes them adept at cross species spread and drift, increasing their probability to cause pandemics. However, this small genome also allows for a robust understanding of all proteins coded by the virus. We employed protein modeling, molecular dynamic simulations, evolutionary mapping, and 3D printing to gain a full proteome and dynamicome understanding of SARS-CoV-2. The Viral Integrated Structural Evolution Dynamic Database (VIStEDD) has been established (prokoplab.com/vistedd), opening future discoveries and educational usage. In this paper, we highlight VIStEDD usage for nsp6, Nucleocapsid (N), and Spike (S) surface glycoprotein. For both nsp6 and N we reveal highly conserved surface amino acids that likely drive protein-protein interactions. In characterizing viral S protein, we have developed a quantitative dynamics cross correlation matrix insight into interaction with the ACE2/SLC6A19 dimer complex. From this quantitative matrix, we elucidated 47 potential functional missense variants from population genomic databases within ACE2/SLC6A19/TMPRSS2, warranting genomic enrichment analyses in SARS-CoV-2 patients. Moreover, these variants have ultralow frequency, but can exist as hemizygous in males for ACE2, which falls on the X-chromosome. Two noncoding variants (rs4646118 and rs143185769) found in ~9% of African descent individuals for ACE2 may regulate expression and be related to increased susceptibility of African Americans to SARS-CoV-2. This powerful database of SARS-CoV-2 can aid in research progress in the ongoing pandemic.