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Pharmacokinetics and analgesic efficacy of intranasal administration of tramadol in dogs after ovariohysterectomy.
Vet Anaesth Analg. 2020 Jul; 47(4):557-566.VA

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To assess analgesic efficacy and the pharmacokinetics of intranasal (IN) tramadol in dogs following ovariohysterectomy.

STUDY DESIGN

Randomized, blinded clinical study.

ANIMALS

A total of 30 bitches undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy.

METHODS

Dogs were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (10 dogs per group): IN tramadol 4 mg kg-1 (group T-IN), intravenous (IV) tramadol 4 mg kg-1 (group T-IV) and IV methadone 0.2 mg kg-1 (group M). Drugs were administered at extubation. At established time points (before surgery and up to 8 hours after drug administration) analgesia was assessed using the Italian version of the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale Short Form and physiological variables were recorded. To determine the pharmacokinetics of IN tramadol, blood samples were collected at predetermined time points. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to assess whether data were normally distributed and consequently parametric or non parametric tests were applied. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant.

RESULTS

No significant intergroup differences were observed in the dogs that were administered rescue analgesia and time of its administration. Excluding dogs that were administered rescue analgesia, no significant intergroup differences emerged in pain scores and physiological variables, except for a lower rectal temperature in group M compared with the tramadol groups. After IN administration, tramadol was rapidly absorbed into the systemic circulation, reaching its maximum concentration (range 74.74-200.29 ng mL-1) within 30-60 minutes, it then decreased rapidly and was detectable in plasma for up to 2 hours after treatment in all dogs.

CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE

IN tramadol administration appears to be as effective as IV tramadol and methadone treatments in pain management of dogs after elective ovariohysterectomy. Given its low concentrations and short detection time in plasma after the IN route, systemic tramadol action appears unlikely.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; CeRiDA-Centro di Ricerca sul Dolore Animale, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; CeRiDA-Centro di Ricerca sul Dolore Animale, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; CeRiDA-Centro di Ricerca sul Dolore Animale, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy. Electronic address: sara.nannarone@unipg.it.Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; CeRiDA-Centro di Ricerca sul Dolore Animale, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; CeRiDA-Centro di Ricerca sul Dolore Animale, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy; CeRiDA-Centro di Ricerca sul Dolore Animale, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32513525

Citation

Di Salvo, Alessandra, et al. "Pharmacokinetics and Analgesic Efficacy of Intranasal Administration of Tramadol in Dogs After Ovariohysterectomy." Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 47, no. 4, 2020, pp. 557-566.
Di Salvo A, Conti MB, Nannarone S, et al. Pharmacokinetics and analgesic efficacy of intranasal administration of tramadol in dogs after ovariohysterectomy. Vet Anaesth Analg. 2020;47(4):557-566.
Di Salvo, A., Conti, M. B., Nannarone, S., Bufalari, A., Giorgi, M., Moretti, G., Marenzoni, M. L., & Della Rocca, G. (2020). Pharmacokinetics and analgesic efficacy of intranasal administration of tramadol in dogs after ovariohysterectomy. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 47(4), 557-566. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2019.12.011
Di Salvo A, et al. Pharmacokinetics and Analgesic Efficacy of Intranasal Administration of Tramadol in Dogs After Ovariohysterectomy. Vet Anaesth Analg. 2020;47(4):557-566. PubMed PMID: 32513525.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Pharmacokinetics and analgesic efficacy of intranasal administration of tramadol in dogs after ovariohysterectomy. AU - Di Salvo,Alessandra, AU - Conti,Maria Beatrice, AU - Nannarone,Sara, AU - Bufalari,Antonello, AU - Giorgi,Mario, AU - Moretti,Giulia, AU - Marenzoni,Maria Luisa, AU - Della Rocca,Giorgia, Y1 - 2020/04/24/ PY - 2019/05/23/received PY - 2019/11/15/revised PY - 2019/12/02/accepted PY - 2020/6/10/pubmed PY - 2020/6/10/medline PY - 2020/6/10/entrez KW - analgesia KW - dog KW - efficacy KW - intranasal administration KW - pharmacokinetics KW - tramadol SP - 557 EP - 566 JF - Veterinary anaesthesia and analgesia JO - Vet Anaesth Analg VL - 47 IS - 4 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To assess analgesic efficacy and the pharmacokinetics of intranasal (IN) tramadol in dogs following ovariohysterectomy. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, blinded clinical study. ANIMALS: A total of 30 bitches undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy. METHODS: Dogs were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (10 dogs per group): IN tramadol 4 mg kg-1 (group T-IN), intravenous (IV) tramadol 4 mg kg-1 (group T-IV) and IV methadone 0.2 mg kg-1 (group M). Drugs were administered at extubation. At established time points (before surgery and up to 8 hours after drug administration) analgesia was assessed using the Italian version of the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale Short Form and physiological variables were recorded. To determine the pharmacokinetics of IN tramadol, blood samples were collected at predetermined time points. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to assess whether data were normally distributed and consequently parametric or non parametric tests were applied. A p value < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: No significant intergroup differences were observed in the dogs that were administered rescue analgesia and time of its administration. Excluding dogs that were administered rescue analgesia, no significant intergroup differences emerged in pain scores and physiological variables, except for a lower rectal temperature in group M compared with the tramadol groups. After IN administration, tramadol was rapidly absorbed into the systemic circulation, reaching its maximum concentration (range 74.74-200.29 ng mL-1) within 30-60 minutes, it then decreased rapidly and was detectable in plasma for up to 2 hours after treatment in all dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: IN tramadol administration appears to be as effective as IV tramadol and methadone treatments in pain management of dogs after elective ovariohysterectomy. Given its low concentrations and short detection time in plasma after the IN route, systemic tramadol action appears unlikely. SN - 1467-2995 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32513525/Pharmacokinetics_and_analgesic_efficacy_of_intranasal_administration_of_tramadol_in_dogs_after_ovariohysterectomy L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1467-2987(20)30079-9 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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