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Evaluation of the anti-snakebite, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of Philodendron megalophyllum Schott (Araceae), traditionally used in accidents caused by snakes in the western region of Pará, Brazil.
Toxicon. 2020 Sep; 184:99-108.T

Abstract

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE

In the region of Western Pará, Amazonia, Brazil, Philodendron megalophyllum is widely used for the treatment of envenomations caused by bites from venomous snakes. The traditional use of plants is usually done through oral administration of an infusion (decoction) soon after the bite occurs. The efficiency of aqueous extracts of P. megalophyllum was demonstrated for blocking the activity of the venom of Bothrops sp., but only for a pre-incubation protocol (venom:extract), which fails to simulate the real form of use of this species. In this context, the objective of this research was to evaluate the anti-snakebite potential of the aqueous extract of P. megalophyllum to inhibit for the biological activity induced by Bothrops atrox venom (BaV) using traditional treatment methods.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Initially, an aqueous extract using the stem of P. megalophyllum (AEPm) was prepared following the standard procedure used by the residents of the rural area along the Tapajós River (Eixo Forte region) in Santarém, PA, Brazil. The phytochemical profile of AEPm was conducted using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and phenolic compounds were quantified through colorimetric trials. The cytotoxicity of AEPm was evaluated using the MRC-5 human fibroblast line, and the antioxidant potential was measured using DPPH methods and cell culture. AEPm antimicrobial action was evaluated by the 96-well plate microdilution and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods using 18 types of microorganisms including bacteria that are present in the oral cavity of snakes. AEPm blocking potential was tested against BaV activity in vitro (fibrinolytic) and in vivo (defibrinating and hemorrhagic). In order to test for an interaction between BaV and AEPm SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was conducted.

RESULTS

The presence of coumarins, fatty acids, and hydrolysable tannins were detected in the AEPm. The colorimetric trials showed that AEPm had a high concentration of condensed tannins (20.1 ± 1.2%). The potential of AEPm for blocking of hemorrhagic and fibrinolytic activity of BaV showed a maximum reduction of 86.1% and 96.5%, respectively, for the pre-incubation protocol (1:10, venom:extract). However, when the extract was administered orally there was no significant blocking of these activities. The interaction of BaV and AEPm showed a modification of the profile of proteic bands when compared to the pattern of bands obtained from the BaV alone. The AEPm was not considered toxic, demonstrated antioxidant activity, and was capable of reducing the growth of 10 of the 18 studied microorganisms.

CONCLUSION

Although the stem of P. megalophyllum is indicated by traditional medicine techniques as effective against snakebites, the extract, when tested orally was not able to significantly inhibit (p ˃ 0.05) hemorrhage and defibrinating activity induced by the B. atrox venom. On the other hand, the extract yielded a promising result with respect to antioxidant and antimicrobial potential, and after further studies it could be used as a complementary treatment for localized action and secondary infections that frequently occur with snakebites from the genus of Bothrops sp.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Programa de Pós-graduação Em Recursos Naturais da Amazônia - PPGRNA, Laboratório de Bioprospecção e Biologia Experimental -LabBBEx, Universidade Federal Do Oeste Do Pará- UFOPA, Santarém, PA, Brazil; Programa de Pós-graduação Em Toxinologia, Laboratório de Imunopatologia - Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.Programa de Pós-graduação Em Toxinologia, Laboratório de Imunopatologia - Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, SP, Brazil.Programa de Pós-Graduação Em Biotecnologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Laboratório de Imunoquímica, Universidade Federal Do Amazonas, Manaus, AM, Brazil; Laboratório de Bioprospecção e Biotecnologia, Coordenação de Tecnologia e Inovação, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, AM, Brazil.Laboratório de Atividade Biológica - Biophar, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal Do Amazonas, AM, Brazil.Programa de Pós-Graduação Em Biotecnologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Laboratório de Imunoquímica, Universidade Federal Do Amazonas, Manaus, AM, Brazil.Programa de Pós-Graduação Em Biotecnologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Laboratório de Imunoquímica, Universidade Federal Do Amazonas, Manaus, AM, Brazil; Laboratório de Bioprospecção e Biotecnologia, Coordenação de Tecnologia e Inovação, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, AM, Brazil.Programa de Pós-graduação Em Recursos Naturais da Amazônia - PPGRNA, Laboratório de Bioprospecção e Biologia Experimental -LabBBEx, Universidade Federal Do Oeste Do Pará- UFOPA, Santarém, PA, Brazil.Programa de Pós-graduação Em Recursos Naturais da Amazônia - PPGRNA, Laboratório de Bioprospecção e Biologia Experimental -LabBBEx, Universidade Federal Do Oeste Do Pará- UFOPA, Santarém, PA, Brazil.Programa de Pós-graduação Em Recursos Naturais da Amazônia - PPGRNA, Laboratório de Bioprospecção e Biologia Experimental -LabBBEx, Universidade Federal Do Oeste Do Pará- UFOPA, Santarém, PA, Brazil. Electronic address: mouraovm@yahoo.com.br.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32522619

Citation

da Costa Guimarães, Noranathan, et al. "Evaluation of the Anti-snakebite, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Potential of Philodendron Megalophyllum Schott (Araceae), Traditionally Used in Accidents Caused By Snakes in the Western Region of Pará, Brazil." Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, vol. 184, 2020, pp. 99-108.
da Costa Guimarães N, Freitas-de-Sousa LA, Scheffer de Souza MC, et al. Evaluation of the anti-snakebite, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of Philodendron megalophyllum Schott (Araceae), traditionally used in accidents caused by snakes in the western region of Pará, Brazil. Toxicon. 2020;184:99-108.
da Costa Guimarães, N., Freitas-de-Sousa, L. A., Scheffer de Souza, M. C., Oliveira de Almeida, P. D., Dos-Santos, M. C., Nunez, C. V., Bezerra de Oliveira, R., Veras Mourão, R. H., & Mourão de Moura, V. (2020). Evaluation of the anti-snakebite, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of Philodendron megalophyllum Schott (Araceae), traditionally used in accidents caused by snakes in the western region of Pará, Brazil. Toxicon : Official Journal of the International Society On Toxinology, 184, 99-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.05.024
da Costa Guimarães N, et al. Evaluation of the Anti-snakebite, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Potential of Philodendron Megalophyllum Schott (Araceae), Traditionally Used in Accidents Caused By Snakes in the Western Region of Pará, Brazil. Toxicon. 2020;184:99-108. PubMed PMID: 32522619.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Evaluation of the anti-snakebite, antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of Philodendron megalophyllum Schott (Araceae), traditionally used in accidents caused by snakes in the western region of Pará, Brazil. AU - da Costa Guimarães,Noranathan, AU - Freitas-de-Sousa,Luciana A, AU - Scheffer de Souza,Maria Carolina, AU - Oliveira de Almeida,Patrícia D, AU - Dos-Santos,Maria Cristina, AU - Nunez,Cecília Verônica, AU - Bezerra de Oliveira,Ricardo, AU - Veras Mourão,Rosa Helena, AU - Mourão de Moura,Valéria, Y1 - 2020/06/06/ PY - 2020/02/27/received PY - 2020/05/16/revised PY - 2020/05/27/accepted PY - 2020/6/12/pubmed PY - 2020/6/12/medline PY - 2020/6/12/entrez KW - Anti-Snakebite plants KW - Antimicrobial potential KW - Bothrops KW - Traditional knowledge SP - 99 EP - 108 JF - Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology JO - Toxicon VL - 184 N2 - ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In the region of Western Pará, Amazonia, Brazil, Philodendron megalophyllum is widely used for the treatment of envenomations caused by bites from venomous snakes. The traditional use of plants is usually done through oral administration of an infusion (decoction) soon after the bite occurs. The efficiency of aqueous extracts of P. megalophyllum was demonstrated for blocking the activity of the venom of Bothrops sp., but only for a pre-incubation protocol (venom:extract), which fails to simulate the real form of use of this species. In this context, the objective of this research was to evaluate the anti-snakebite potential of the aqueous extract of P. megalophyllum to inhibit for the biological activity induced by Bothrops atrox venom (BaV) using traditional treatment methods. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Initially, an aqueous extract using the stem of P. megalophyllum (AEPm) was prepared following the standard procedure used by the residents of the rural area along the Tapajós River (Eixo Forte region) in Santarém, PA, Brazil. The phytochemical profile of AEPm was conducted using thin layer chromatography (TLC) and phenolic compounds were quantified through colorimetric trials. The cytotoxicity of AEPm was evaluated using the MRC-5 human fibroblast line, and the antioxidant potential was measured using DPPH methods and cell culture. AEPm antimicrobial action was evaluated by the 96-well plate microdilution and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods using 18 types of microorganisms including bacteria that are present in the oral cavity of snakes. AEPm blocking potential was tested against BaV activity in vitro (fibrinolytic) and in vivo (defibrinating and hemorrhagic). In order to test for an interaction between BaV and AEPm SDS-PAGE electrophoresis was conducted. RESULTS: The presence of coumarins, fatty acids, and hydrolysable tannins were detected in the AEPm. The colorimetric trials showed that AEPm had a high concentration of condensed tannins (20.1 ± 1.2%). The potential of AEPm for blocking of hemorrhagic and fibrinolytic activity of BaV showed a maximum reduction of 86.1% and 96.5%, respectively, for the pre-incubation protocol (1:10, venom:extract). However, when the extract was administered orally there was no significant blocking of these activities. The interaction of BaV and AEPm showed a modification of the profile of proteic bands when compared to the pattern of bands obtained from the BaV alone. The AEPm was not considered toxic, demonstrated antioxidant activity, and was capable of reducing the growth of 10 of the 18 studied microorganisms. CONCLUSION: Although the stem of P. megalophyllum is indicated by traditional medicine techniques as effective against snakebites, the extract, when tested orally was not able to significantly inhibit (p ˃ 0.05) hemorrhage and defibrinating activity induced by the B. atrox venom. On the other hand, the extract yielded a promising result with respect to antioxidant and antimicrobial potential, and after further studies it could be used as a complementary treatment for localized action and secondary infections that frequently occur with snakebites from the genus of Bothrops sp. SN - 1879-3150 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32522619/Evaluation_of_the_anti-snakebite,_antimicrobial_and_antioxidant_potential_of_Philodendron_megalophyllum_Schott_(Araceae),_traditionally_used_in_accidents_caused_by_snakes_in_the_western_region_of_Pará,_Brazil L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0041-0101(20)30255-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -