Role of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Relapsed Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia.Clin Transplant. 2020 Jun 11 [Online ahead of print]CT
The use of all trans-retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide combination as the induction regimen for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has revolutionized the management and outcomes of this disease. Modern risk adapted frontline therapy has provided excellent therapeutic results. However, significant numbers of APL patients relapse after frontline therapy, and the optimal management strategy for relapsed APL, specifically the role and type of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are still to be defined. Both autologous and allogeneic HCTs are associated with durable remission and prolonged survival when utilized in appropriate disease settings. Once remission has been achieved, consolidation with autologous HCT for APL patients with negative minimal residual disease (MRD) status, and with allogeneic HCT for APL patients with positive MRD status appear to offer the best long-term outcomes. In this article, we provide a comprehensive review of existing literature on the efficacy of HCT in treatment of relapse/refractory APL and we discuss the appropriate use of this modality.