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Tramadol exposure upregulated apoptosis, inflammation and autophagy in PC12 cells and rat's striatum: An in vitro- in vivo approach.
J Chem Neuroanat. 2020 Jun 08; 109:101820.JC

Abstract

AIM AND BACKGROUND

Tramadol is a synthetic analogue of codeine, mostly prescribed for the alleviation of mild to moderate pains. It bears several side effects including emotional instability and anxiety. In this study, we focused on the alteration in expression of autophagic and apoptotic genes in PC-12 cells for our in vitro and structural and functional changes of striatum for our in vivo under chronic exposure of tramadol.

METHODS

For in vitro side of the study, PC12 cells were exposed to tramadol (50 μM) and expression of apoptosis and autophagy genes were determined. In parallel, rats were daily treated with tramadol at doses of 50 mg/kg for three weeks for the in vivo side. Motor coordination, EMG, histopathology and gene expression were done.

RESULTS

Our in vitro findings revealed that tramadol increased expression of apoptosis and autophagy genes in PC12 cells. Moreover, our in vivo results disclosed that tramadol not only provoked atrophy of rats' striatum, but also triggered microgliosis along with neuronal death in the striatum. Tramadol also reduced motor coordination and muscular activity.

CONCLUSION

Altogether, our data indicated that tramadol induced neurotoxicity in the PC12 cells via apoptosis and autophagy and in striatum chiefly through activation of neuroinflammatory and apoptotic responses.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Cell Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Department of Human Molecular Genetics, Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland.Cell Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Cell Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Cell Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Cell Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Cell Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Cell Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.Cell Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: aghaei60@gmail.com.Cell Biology and Anatomical Sciences, School of Medicine, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address: heidari34@gmail.com.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32526246

Citation

Soltani, Reza, et al. "Tramadol Exposure Upregulated Apoptosis, Inflammation and Autophagy in PC12 Cells and Rat's Striatum: an in Vitro- in Vivo Approach." Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, vol. 109, 2020, p. 101820.
Soltani R, Boroujeni ME, Aghajanpour F, et al. Tramadol exposure upregulated apoptosis, inflammation and autophagy in PC12 cells and rat's striatum: An in vitro- in vivo approach. J Chem Neuroanat. 2020;109:101820.
Soltani, R., Boroujeni, M. E., Aghajanpour, F., Khatmi, A., Ezi, S., Mirbehbahani, S. H., Abdollahifar, M. A., Akhlaghpasand, M., Aliaghaei, A., & Heidari, M. H. (2020). Tramadol exposure upregulated apoptosis, inflammation and autophagy in PC12 cells and rat's striatum: An in vitro- in vivo approach. Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy, 109, 101820. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchemneu.2020.101820
Soltani R, et al. Tramadol Exposure Upregulated Apoptosis, Inflammation and Autophagy in PC12 Cells and Rat's Striatum: an in Vitro- in Vivo Approach. J Chem Neuroanat. 2020 Jun 8;109:101820. PubMed PMID: 32526246.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Tramadol exposure upregulated apoptosis, inflammation and autophagy in PC12 cells and rat's striatum: An in vitro- in vivo approach. AU - Soltani,Reza, AU - Boroujeni,Mahdi Eskandarian, AU - Aghajanpour,Fakhroddin, AU - Khatmi,Aysan, AU - Ezi,Samira, AU - Mirbehbahani,Seyed Hamidreza, AU - Abdollahifar,Mohammad-Amin, AU - Akhlaghpasand,Mohamadhosein, AU - Aliaghaei,Abbas, AU - Heidari,Mohammad-Hasan, Y1 - 2020/06/08/ PY - 2020/04/10/received PY - 2020/05/31/revised PY - 2020/06/01/accepted PY - 2020/6/12/pubmed PY - 2020/6/12/medline PY - 2020/6/12/entrez KW - Neurodegeneration KW - Neuroinflammatory KW - Striatum KW - Tramadol SP - 101820 EP - 101820 JF - Journal of chemical neuroanatomy JO - J. Chem. Neuroanat. VL - 109 N2 - AIM AND BACKGROUND: Tramadol is a synthetic analogue of codeine, mostly prescribed for the alleviation of mild to moderate pains. It bears several side effects including emotional instability and anxiety. In this study, we focused on the alteration in expression of autophagic and apoptotic genes in PC-12 cells for our in vitro and structural and functional changes of striatum for our in vivo under chronic exposure of tramadol. METHODS: For in vitro side of the study, PC12 cells were exposed to tramadol (50 μM) and expression of apoptosis and autophagy genes were determined. In parallel, rats were daily treated with tramadol at doses of 50 mg/kg for three weeks for the in vivo side. Motor coordination, EMG, histopathology and gene expression were done. RESULTS: Our in vitro findings revealed that tramadol increased expression of apoptosis and autophagy genes in PC12 cells. Moreover, our in vivo results disclosed that tramadol not only provoked atrophy of rats' striatum, but also triggered microgliosis along with neuronal death in the striatum. Tramadol also reduced motor coordination and muscular activity. CONCLUSION: Altogether, our data indicated that tramadol induced neurotoxicity in the PC12 cells via apoptosis and autophagy and in striatum chiefly through activation of neuroinflammatory and apoptotic responses. SN - 1873-6300 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32526246/Tramadol_exposure_upregulated_apoptosis,_inflammation_and_autophagy_in_PC12_cells_and_rat's_striatum:_an_in_vitro-_in_vivo_approach L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0891-0618(20)30089-2 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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