Surgical treatment of midfoot Charcot neuroarthropathy with osteomyelitis in patients with diabetes: a systematic review.J Wound Care. 2020 Jun 01; 29(Sup6):S19-S28.JW
A wide range of clinical presentations of Charcot neuroarthropathy of the foot with concomitant osteomyelitis in patients with diabetes has been described. Existing literature provides an equally diverse list of treatment options. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the outcomes specifically for the surgical management of midfoot Charcot neuroarthropathy with osteomyelitis in patients with diabetes.
A systematic review was conducted by three independent reviewers using the following databases and search engines: Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Cochrane Library, EMBASE (Excerpta Medica dataBASE), Google Scholar, Ovid, PubMed and Scopus. Search terms used were: Charcot neuroarthropathy, osteoarthropathy, neuro-osteoarthropathy, neurogenic arthropathy, osteomyelitis, midfoot, foot, ankle, diabetes mellitus, ulceration, wound, infection, surgical offloading, diabetic reconstruction, internal fixation, external fixation. Studies meeting the following criteria were included: English language studies, studies published from 1997-2017, patients with diabetes mellitus surgically treated for Charcot neuroarthropathy of the midfoot (specified location) with concomitant osteomyelitis, with or without internal and/or external fixation, follow-up period of six months or more postoperatively, documentation of healing rates, complications, and need for revisional surgery. Studies which were entirely literature reviews, descriptions of surgical-only technique and/or cadaveric studies, patients without diabetes, studies that did not specify location of osteomyelitis and Charcot neuroarthropathy, and treatment proximal to and including Chopart's/midtarsal joint specifically talonavicular, calcaneocuboid, subtalar, ankle were excluded.
A total of 13 selected studies, with a total of 114 patients with diabetes of which 56 had surgical treatment for midfoot Charcot neuroarthropathy with osteomyelitis, met the above inclusion criteria and were used for data extraction.
Surgical intervention for midfoot Charcot neuroarthropathy with osteomyelitis in patients with diabetes demonstrated a relatively high success rate for a range of procedures including debridement with simple exostectomy, arthrodesis with or without internal or external fixation, and advanced soft tissue reconstruction. However, this systematic review emphasises the need for larger, better designed studies to investigate the efficacy and failure rates of surgical treatment in this group of patients.