Tags

Type your tag names separated by a space and hit enter

Fighting COVID-19: A quick review of diagnoses, therapies, and vaccines.
Biomed J. 2020 08; 43(4):341-354.BJ

Abstract

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has infected more than 22 million individuals and resulted in over 780,000 deaths globally. The rapid spread of the virus and the precipitously increasing numbers of cases necessitate the urgent development of accurate diagnostic methods, effective treatments, and vaccines. Here, we review the progress of developing diagnostic methods, therapies, and vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 with a focus on current clinical trials and their challenges. For diagnosis, nucleic acid amplification tests remain the mainstay diagnostics for laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection, while serological antibody tests are used to aid contact tracing, epidemiological, and vaccine evaluation studies. Viral isolation is not recommended for routine diagnostic procedures due to safety concerns. Currently, no single effective drug or specific vaccine is available against SARS-CoV-2. Some candidate drugs targeting different levels and stages of human responses against COVID-19 such as cell membrane fusion, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, viral protease inhibitor, interleukin 6 blocker, and convalescent plasma may improve the clinical outcomes of critical COVID-19 patients. Other supportive care measures for critical patients are still necessary. Advances in genetic sequencing and other technological developments have sped up the establishment of a variety of vaccine platforms. Accordingly, numerous vaccines are under development. Vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2 are mainly based upon the viral spike protein due to its vital role in viral infectivity, and most of these candidates have recently moved into clinical trials. Before the efficacy of such vaccines in humans is demonstrated, strong international coordination and collaboration among studies, pharmaceutical companies, regulators, and governments are needed to limit further damage due the emerging SARS-CoV-2 virus.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Emergency Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; School of Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Department of Public Health, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan; Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.School of Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Department of Pediatrics, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan.School of Medicine, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; National Institute of Infectious Diseases and Vaccinology, National Health Research Institutes, Miaoli, Taiwan; Department of Pediatrics, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan; Doctoral Degree Program in Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address: pedchi@nhri.org.tw.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32532623

Citation

Shih, Hsin-I, et al. "Fighting COVID-19: a Quick Review of Diagnoses, Therapies, and Vaccines." Biomedical Journal, vol. 43, no. 4, 2020, pp. 341-354.
Shih HI, Wu CJ, Tu YF, et al. Fighting COVID-19: A quick review of diagnoses, therapies, and vaccines. Biomed J. 2020;43(4):341-354.
Shih, H. I., Wu, C. J., Tu, Y. F., & Chi, C. Y. (2020). Fighting COVID-19: A quick review of diagnoses, therapies, and vaccines. Biomedical Journal, 43(4), 341-354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bj.2020.05.021
Shih HI, et al. Fighting COVID-19: a Quick Review of Diagnoses, Therapies, and Vaccines. Biomed J. 2020;43(4):341-354. PubMed PMID: 32532623.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Fighting COVID-19: A quick review of diagnoses, therapies, and vaccines. AU - Shih,Hsin-I, AU - Wu,Chi-Jung, AU - Tu,Yi-Fang, AU - Chi,Chia-Yu, Y1 - 2020/05/30/ PY - 2020/05/07/received PY - 2020/05/21/revised PY - 2020/05/26/accepted PY - 2020/6/14/pubmed PY - 2020/10/30/medline PY - 2020/6/14/entrez KW - COVID-19 KW - Clinical trials KW - NAATs KW - SARS-CoV-2 KW - Spike protein KW - Vaccine SP - 341 EP - 354 JF - Biomedical journal JO - Biomed J VL - 43 IS - 4 N2 - The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has infected more than 22 million individuals and resulted in over 780,000 deaths globally. The rapid spread of the virus and the precipitously increasing numbers of cases necessitate the urgent development of accurate diagnostic methods, effective treatments, and vaccines. Here, we review the progress of developing diagnostic methods, therapies, and vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 with a focus on current clinical trials and their challenges. For diagnosis, nucleic acid amplification tests remain the mainstay diagnostics for laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection, while serological antibody tests are used to aid contact tracing, epidemiological, and vaccine evaluation studies. Viral isolation is not recommended for routine diagnostic procedures due to safety concerns. Currently, no single effective drug or specific vaccine is available against SARS-CoV-2. Some candidate drugs targeting different levels and stages of human responses against COVID-19 such as cell membrane fusion, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, viral protease inhibitor, interleukin 6 blocker, and convalescent plasma may improve the clinical outcomes of critical COVID-19 patients. Other supportive care measures for critical patients are still necessary. Advances in genetic sequencing and other technological developments have sped up the establishment of a variety of vaccine platforms. Accordingly, numerous vaccines are under development. Vaccine candidates against SARS-CoV-2 are mainly based upon the viral spike protein due to its vital role in viral infectivity, and most of these candidates have recently moved into clinical trials. Before the efficacy of such vaccines in humans is demonstrated, strong international coordination and collaboration among studies, pharmaceutical companies, regulators, and governments are needed to limit further damage due the emerging SARS-CoV-2 virus. SN - 2320-2890 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32532623/Fighting_COVID_19:_A_quick_review_of_diagnoses_therapies_and_vaccines_ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -