Emerging coronaviruses: first SARS, second MERS and third SARS-CoV-2: epidemiological updates of COVID-19.Infez Med. 2020 Jun 01; 28(suppl 1):6-17.IM
Since December 2019, the emergence of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been reported unexpectedly in Wuhan, China, with staggering infection speed across China and around the world. To date, seven known strains of HCoVs belonging to four genera (i.e., α?, β?, γ, and δ-CoV) have been recognized; the latest one has been identified as the SARS-CoV-2. Although the common transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 is the respiratory tract, it seems that other routes such as the gastrointestinal tract may be effective for the entry of the virus in the body. Although there are no biological markers to predict the susceptibility of humans to COVID-19, several risk factors have been identified to predict the susceptibility of patients to COVID-19. Initial data revealed that males, pregnant women, elderly, and underlying conditions predispose patients to higher morbidity or mortality and also might be at risk for a severe infection of COVID-19. There is a greater need to better understand the mechanisms and risk factors of transmission routes. To date, despite the whole world effort to review various aspects of SARS-CoV-2, including epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment options, there are still gaps in the knowledge of this disease and many issues remain unclear. Therefore, there is an urgent need for update data on SARS-CoV-2. Here, this study provide the current epidemiological status (transmission routes and risk of transmission, possible origins and source, mortality and morbidity risk, and geographical distribution) of the SARS-CoV-2 in the world in 2020.