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Interaction between ω6 and ω3 fatty acids of different chain lengths regulates Atlantic salmon hepatic gene expression and muscle fatty acid profiles.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2020 08 03; 375(1804):20190648.PT

Abstract

Atlantic salmon smolts (approx. 20-months old) were fed experimental diets with different combinations of omega-6:omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) (high-ω6, high-ω3, or balanced) and eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (EPA + DHA) levels (0.3, 1.0 or 1.4%) for 12 weeks. Muscle FA (% total FA) reflected dietary C18-polyunsaturated FA; however, muscle EPA per cent and content (mg g-1) were not different in salmon fed high-ω3 or balanced diets. Muscle DHA per cent was similar among treatments, while DHA content increased in fish fed 1.4% EPA + DHA, compared with those fed 0.3-1.0% EPA + DHA combined with high-ω6 FA. Muscle 20:3ω6 (DGLA) content was highest in those fed high-ω6 with 0.3% EPA + DHA. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses on liver RNA showed that the monounsaturated FA synthesis-related gene, scdb, was upregulated in fish fed 1.0% EPA + DHA with high-ω6 compared to those fed 0.3% EPA + DHA. In high-ω3-fed salmon, liver elovl2 transcript levels were higher with 0.3% EPA + DHA than with 1.0% EPA + DHA. In high-ω6-fed fish, elovl2 did not vary with EPA + DHA levels, but it was positively correlated with muscle ARA, 22:4ω3 and DGLA. These results suggest dietary 18:3ω3 elongation contributed to maintaining muscle EPA + DHA levels despite a two- to threefold change in dietary proportions, while 18:2ω6 with 0.3% EPA + DHA increased muscle DGLA more than arachidonic acid (ARA). Positive correlations between hepatic elovl2 and fabp10a with muscle ω6:ω3 and EPA + DHA + ARA, respectively, were confirmed by reanalysing data from a previous salmon trial with lower variations in dietary EPA + DHA and ω6:ω3 ratios. This article is part of the theme issue 'The next horizons for lipids as 'trophic biomarkers': evidence and significance of consumer modification of dietary fatty acids'.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL, Canada A1C 5S7.Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL, Canada A1C 5S7.Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL, Canada A1C 5S7.Cargill Animal Nutrition, Elk River, MN 55330, USA.Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL, Canada A1C 5S7.Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL, Canada A1C 5S7.Department of Ocean Sciences, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, NL, Canada A1C 5S7.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32536300

Citation

Emam, Mohamed, et al. "Interaction Between Ω6 and Ω3 Fatty Acids of Different Chain Lengths Regulates Atlantic Salmon Hepatic Gene Expression and Muscle Fatty Acid Profiles." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, vol. 375, no. 1804, 2020, p. 20190648.
Emam M, Katan T, Caballero-Solares A, et al. Interaction between ω6 and ω3 fatty acids of different chain lengths regulates Atlantic salmon hepatic gene expression and muscle fatty acid profiles. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2020;375(1804):20190648.
Emam, M., Katan, T., Caballero-Solares, A., Taylor, R. G., Parrish, K. S., Rise, M. L., & Parrish, C. C. (2020). Interaction between ω6 and ω3 fatty acids of different chain lengths regulates Atlantic salmon hepatic gene expression and muscle fatty acid profiles. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences, 375(1804), 20190648. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2019.0648
Emam M, et al. Interaction Between Ω6 and Ω3 Fatty Acids of Different Chain Lengths Regulates Atlantic Salmon Hepatic Gene Expression and Muscle Fatty Acid Profiles. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2020 08 3;375(1804):20190648. PubMed PMID: 32536300.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Interaction between ω6 and ω3 fatty acids of different chain lengths regulates Atlantic salmon hepatic gene expression and muscle fatty acid profiles. AU - Emam,Mohamed, AU - Katan,Tomer, AU - Caballero-Solares,Albert, AU - Taylor,Richard G, AU - Parrish,Kathleen S, AU - Rise,Matthew L, AU - Parrish,Christopher C, Y1 - 2020/06/15/ PY - 2021/08/03/pmc-release PY - 2020/6/16/entrez PY - 2020/6/17/pubmed PY - 2021/3/24/medline KW - EPA and DHA KW - diet KW - lipid metabolism biomarkers KW - ω6:ω3 ratio SP - 20190648 EP - 20190648 JF - Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences JO - Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci VL - 375 IS - 1804 N2 - Atlantic salmon smolts (approx. 20-months old) were fed experimental diets with different combinations of omega-6:omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) (high-ω6, high-ω3, or balanced) and eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid (EPA + DHA) levels (0.3, 1.0 or 1.4%) for 12 weeks. Muscle FA (% total FA) reflected dietary C18-polyunsaturated FA; however, muscle EPA per cent and content (mg g-1) were not different in salmon fed high-ω3 or balanced diets. Muscle DHA per cent was similar among treatments, while DHA content increased in fish fed 1.4% EPA + DHA, compared with those fed 0.3-1.0% EPA + DHA combined with high-ω6 FA. Muscle 20:3ω6 (DGLA) content was highest in those fed high-ω6 with 0.3% EPA + DHA. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses on liver RNA showed that the monounsaturated FA synthesis-related gene, scdb, was upregulated in fish fed 1.0% EPA + DHA with high-ω6 compared to those fed 0.3% EPA + DHA. In high-ω3-fed salmon, liver elovl2 transcript levels were higher with 0.3% EPA + DHA than with 1.0% EPA + DHA. In high-ω6-fed fish, elovl2 did not vary with EPA + DHA levels, but it was positively correlated with muscle ARA, 22:4ω3 and DGLA. These results suggest dietary 18:3ω3 elongation contributed to maintaining muscle EPA + DHA levels despite a two- to threefold change in dietary proportions, while 18:2ω6 with 0.3% EPA + DHA increased muscle DGLA more than arachidonic acid (ARA). Positive correlations between hepatic elovl2 and fabp10a with muscle ω6:ω3 and EPA + DHA + ARA, respectively, were confirmed by reanalysing data from a previous salmon trial with lower variations in dietary EPA + DHA and ω6:ω3 ratios. This article is part of the theme issue 'The next horizons for lipids as 'trophic biomarkers': evidence and significance of consumer modification of dietary fatty acids'. SN - 1471-2970 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32536300/Interaction_between_ω6_and_ω3_fatty_acids_of_different_chain_lengths_regulates_Atlantic_salmon_hepatic_gene_expression_and_muscle_fatty_acid_profiles_ L2 - https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2019.0648?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -