[Practice and thinking of acute respiratory infection surveillance for the response of emerging respiratory diseases in Shanghai].Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2020 Dec 10; 41(12):1994-1998.ZL
Shanghai Municipal Center for Disease Control and Prevention has implemented an active comprehensive surveillance project of acute respiratory infections in adults in Shanghai, including influenza like illness (ILI) and severe acute respiratory infection (SARI). By testing and identifying a variety of respiratory pathogens, it was found that influenza viruses were the main pathogens in 172 ILI cases in 2019. The positive rates of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus, influenza A (H3N2) virus and influenza B virus Victoria lineage were 30.81%, 14.53% and 30.55%, respectively. The positive detection of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus peaked in the first quarter. The positive rate of enterovirus/human rhinovirus was 6.40%, with a positive detection peak in the third quarter, while the positive rate of adenovirus was 4.65% with a positive detection peak in the second quarter of the year. Two human coronavirus (HCoV)-OC43 positive samples, 1 HCoV-HKU1 positive sample and 1 HCoV-NL63 positive sample were detected, respectively, and no HCoV-229E positive sample was detected. The detection rate of Staphylococcus aureus was 17.44%, and the detection rate of Klebsiellapneumoniae was 9.88%. Influenza viruses were also the main pathogens in 1 447 SARI cases. The positive rates of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus, influenza A (H3N2) virus and influenza B virus Victoria lineage were 5.46%, 1.73% and 0.30%, respectively. The positive detection of influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 virus (17.50%) peaked in the first quarter. The total positive detection rate of enterovirus/human rhinovirus was 2.97%, the positive detection peaked in the first quarter. The positive rate of Mycoplasma pneumoniae was 3.25% and the positive rate of Legionella was 1.04%. 5 HCoV-229E positive samples, 10 HCoV-OC43 positive samples, 7 HCoV-HKU1 positive samples and 6 HCoV-NL63 positive samples were detected. Eight strains of Staphylococcus aureus, 4 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 3 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae were detected after cultures. By implementing the active surveillance, we not only detected a case of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in time, but also preliminary understood the pathogenic spectrum characteristics and seasonality of ILI and SARI in Shanghai. In recent years, the surveillance methods have been continuously improved and the number of sentinel hospitals has increased gradually. In particular, for the response to COVID-19, the Surveillance Information Reporting System of Acute Respiratory Infection based on HIS system has been promoted to cover the whole city, which might lay a foundation for the active surveillance and early warning of emerging infectious diseases in the future.