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Smell and Taste Dysfunction in COVID-19 Is Associated With Younger Age in Ambulatory Settings: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study.
J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2020; 30(5):346-357.JI

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE

Since the initial anecdotal reports of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from China, a growing number of studies have reported on smell and/or taste dysfunction (STD). Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency and severity of STD in COVID-19 patients and to evaluate the association with demographic characteristics, hospital admission, symptoms, comorbidities, and blood biomarkers.

METHODS

We performed a multicenter cross-sectional study on patients who were positive for SARS-CoV-2 (n=846) and controls (n=143) from 15 Spanish hospitals. Data on STD were collected prospectively using an in-person survey. The severity of STD was categorized using a visual analog scale. We analyzed time to onset, recovery rate, time to recovery, hospital admission, pneumonia, comorbidities, smoking, and symptoms.

RESULTS

STD was at least 2-fold more common in COVID-19-positive patients than in controls. COVID-19-positive hospitalized patients were older, with a lower frequency of STD, and recovered earlier than outpatients. Analysis stratified by severity of STD showed that more than half of COVID-19 patients presented severe loss of smell (53.7%) or taste (52.2%); both senses were impaired in >90%. In the multivariate analysis, older age (>60 years), being hospitalized, and increased C-reactive protein were associated with a better sense of smell and/or taste. COVID-19-positive patients reported improvement in smell (45.6%) and taste (46.1%) at the time of the survey; in 90.6% this was within 2 weeks of infection.

CONCLUSION

STD is a common symptom in COVID-19 and presents mainly in young and nonhospitalized patients. More studies are needed to evaluate follow-up of chemosensory impairment.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Allergy, Consorci Sanitari de Terrassa, Barcelona, Spain. Unidad Alergo Rino, Centro Médico Teknon, Barcelona, Spain. Department of Allergy, Clínica Diagonal, Barcelona, Spain.Rhinology Unit & Smell Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Clinical and Experimental Respiratory Immunoallergy, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain. CIBER of Respiratory Diseases (CIBERES), Spain.Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Donostia University Hospital, San Sebastian, Spain.Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital Complex of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela, Spain.Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Donostia University Hospital, San Sebastian, Spain.Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Donostia University Hospital, San Sebastian, Spain.Rhinology Section, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Marañón and Hospital La Milagrosa, Spain.Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada and Hospital La Milagrosa, Spain.Rhinology and Skull Base Unit, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospital Virgen de la Macarena, Seville, Spain.Rhinology and Skull Base Unit, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Hospital Virgen de la Macarena, Seville, Spain.Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital Universitario Virgen de las Nieves, Granada, Spain.Department of Otolaryngology, Hospital Universitario La Paz, Spain.Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital de Sant Joan Despí Moisès Broggi, Barcelona, Spain.Rhinology Section, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital Universitario de Cruces, Bilbao, Spain.Rhinology and asthma Unit, UGC ORL Hospital de Jerez, Servicio Andaluz de Salud, Cadiz, Spain.Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain.Clinical and Experimental Respiratory Immunoallergy, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain. CIBER of Respiratory Diseases (CIBERES), Spain. Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain.Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital Reina Sofía de Córdoba, Córdoba, Spain.Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital Vall d´Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Clínic Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Clínic Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.Rhinology Unit & Smell Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Clinical and Experimental Respiratory Immunoallergy, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain. CIBER of Respiratory Diseases (CIBERES), Spain.Unidad Alergo Rino, Centro Médico Teknon, Barcelona, Spain. Rhinology Unit & Smell Clinic, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Hospital Clinic Barcelona, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Clinical and Experimental Respiratory Immunoallergy, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain. CIBER of Respiratory Diseases (CIBERES), Spain.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Multicenter Study

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32554337

Citation

Izquierdo-Domínguez, A, et al. "Smell and Taste Dysfunction in COVID-19 Is Associated With Younger Age in Ambulatory Settings: a Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study." Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology, vol. 30, no. 5, 2020, pp. 346-357.
Izquierdo-Domínguez A, Rojas-Lechuga MJ, Chiesa-Estomba C, et al. Smell and Taste Dysfunction in COVID-19 Is Associated With Younger Age in Ambulatory Settings: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2020;30(5):346-357.
Izquierdo-Domínguez, A., Rojas-Lechuga, M. J., Chiesa-Estomba, C., Calvo-Henríquez, C., Ninchritz-Becerra, E., Soriano-Reixach, M., Poletti-Serafini, D., Villarreal, I. M., Maza-Solano, J. M., Moreno-Luna, R., Villarroel, P. P., Mateos-Serrano, B., Agudelo, D., Valcarcel, F., Del Cuvillo, A., Santamaría, A., Mariño-Sánchez, F., Aguilar, J., Vergés, P., ... Alobid, I. (2020). Smell and Taste Dysfunction in COVID-19 Is Associated With Younger Age in Ambulatory Settings: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology, 30(5), 346-357. https://doi.org/10.18176/jiaci.0595
Izquierdo-Domínguez A, et al. Smell and Taste Dysfunction in COVID-19 Is Associated With Younger Age in Ambulatory Settings: a Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2020;30(5):346-357. PubMed PMID: 32554337.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Smell and Taste Dysfunction in COVID-19 Is Associated With Younger Age in Ambulatory Settings: A Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study. AU - Izquierdo-Domínguez,A, AU - Rojas-Lechuga,M J, AU - Chiesa-Estomba,C, AU - Calvo-Henríquez,C, AU - Ninchritz-Becerra,E, AU - Soriano-Reixach,M, AU - Poletti-Serafini,D, AU - Villarreal,I M, AU - Maza-Solano,J M, AU - Moreno-Luna,R, AU - Villarroel,P P, AU - Mateos-Serrano,B, AU - Agudelo,D, AU - Valcarcel,F, AU - Del Cuvillo,A, AU - Santamaría,A, AU - Mariño-Sánchez,F, AU - Aguilar,J, AU - Vergés,P, AU - Inciarte,A, AU - Soriano,A, AU - Mullol,J, AU - Alobid,I, Y1 - 2020/06/17/ PY - 2020/6/20/pubmed PY - 2020/10/21/medline PY - 2020/6/20/entrez KW - COVID-19 KW - Hospital admission KW - Loss of smell KW - Loss of taste KW - SARS-CoV-2 SP - 346 EP - 357 JF - Journal of investigational allergology & clinical immunology JO - J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol VL - 30 IS - 5 N2 - BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Since the initial anecdotal reports of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) from China, a growing number of studies have reported on smell and/or taste dysfunction (STD). Objective: The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency and severity of STD in COVID-19 patients and to evaluate the association with demographic characteristics, hospital admission, symptoms, comorbidities, and blood biomarkers. METHODS: We performed a multicenter cross-sectional study on patients who were positive for SARS-CoV-2 (n=846) and controls (n=143) from 15 Spanish hospitals. Data on STD were collected prospectively using an in-person survey. The severity of STD was categorized using a visual analog scale. We analyzed time to onset, recovery rate, time to recovery, hospital admission, pneumonia, comorbidities, smoking, and symptoms. RESULTS: STD was at least 2-fold more common in COVID-19-positive patients than in controls. COVID-19-positive hospitalized patients were older, with a lower frequency of STD, and recovered earlier than outpatients. Analysis stratified by severity of STD showed that more than half of COVID-19 patients presented severe loss of smell (53.7%) or taste (52.2%); both senses were impaired in >90%. In the multivariate analysis, older age (>60 years), being hospitalized, and increased C-reactive protein were associated with a better sense of smell and/or taste. COVID-19-positive patients reported improvement in smell (45.6%) and taste (46.1%) at the time of the survey; in 90.6% this was within 2 weeks of infection. CONCLUSION: STD is a common symptom in COVID-19 and presents mainly in young and nonhospitalized patients. More studies are needed to evaluate follow-up of chemosensory impairment. SN - 1018-9068 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32554337/Smell_and_Taste_Dysfunction_in_COVID_19_Is_Associated_With_Younger_Age_in_Ambulatory_Settings:_A_Multicenter_Cross_Sectional_Study_ L2 - http://www.jiaci.org/summary/vol30-issue5-num2101 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -