Focused ultrasound-based extraction for target analysis and suspect screening of organic xenobiotics in fish muscle.Sci Total Environ. 2020 Jun 04; 740:139894.ST
The development of multitarget and/or suspect screening methods for the analysis of xenobiotics in fish samples is compulsory due to the lack of works in the literature where a deep evaluation of the variables affecting extraction and clean-up steps is performed. The aim of the present work was to optimize and validate a multitarget (180 compounds) method for the analysis of priority and emerging xenobiotics in fish muscle using focused ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction. From the different extraction solvents studied, a single extraction in cold acetonitrile rendered the best consensus results in terms of absolute recoveries and the number of target compounds extracted. Matrix effect was minimized using commercially available Captiva ND-Lipid filters, which provided clean extracts and satisfactory repeatability compared to other approaches. Absolute recoveries were corrected using matrix-matched calibration and apparent recoveries in the 43%-105%, 73%-131% and 78%-128% ranges were obtained at low (20 ng g-1), medium (100 ng g-1), and high (200 ng g-1) spiking levels, respectively. A 60% of the xenobiotics showed limits of identification lower than 20 ng g-1. The developed method was successfully applied to the quantification and suspect screening of samples bought in a local market (hake, gilt-head bream, sea bass and prawn) and fished (thicklip grey mullet) at the Urdaibai estuary (north of Spain). Food additives, antiparasitic drugs and PFOS were quantified at ng g-1 level. Moreover, the targeted method was extended to the suspect screening, revealing the presence of plastic related products (caprolactam, phthalates, polyethylenglycols), pharmaceutical products (albendazole, mebendazole, valpromide) and pesticides or insect repellents (icaridin, myristyl sulfate, nootkatone). Therefore, FUSLE in cold acetonitrile combined with Captiva ND-Lipid filters and liquid chromatography tandem high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-q-Orbitrap) were successfully applied to both multitarget quantitative analysis and suspect screening of approx. 17,800 compounds.