[Early-onset melanoma (congenital, neonatal, infantile): A systematic review of literature cases].Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2020 Jun 17 [Online ahead of print]AD
Neonatal and infantile malignant melanoma is rare. It may be difficult to diagnose and often carries a poor prognosis.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
We decided to review the data on congenital, neonatal and infantile malignant melanomas in order to understand their presentation (clinical, histological, molecular), diagnosis, management and outcomes. We performed a literature search of all cases of early-onset melanoma published in PubMed from its inception to March 2019 using the following keywords: "malignant melanoma" OR "melanoma" OR "pigmented nevus" OR "malignant pigmented" AND "infantile" OR "congenital" OR "children" OR "childhood" OR "infancy" OR "neonatal". Congenital melanoma associated with maternal-foetal transmission was not included in the study.
Sixty-five articles were selected and 85 cases were included in the study. Most patients were male (sex ratio: 1.6). The average age at diagnosis was 5.5 months (minimum-maximum: 0-24 months). The main site reported for congenital melanoma was the head-and-neck area and for neonatal and infantile melanoma the trunk. Half of all patients had a metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. In metastatic cases, the prognosis was poor with the exception of patients undergoing complete excision of the tumour and metastases. The main treatment for cutaneous melanomas and operable metastasis was surgery, and secondarily, chemotherapy/immunotherapy.
Neonatal and infantile malignant melanoma are rarely reported and not well-documented. It is necessary to collect additional cases to improve our knowledge of this rare disease.