Prevalence of renal dysfunction among HIV infected patients receiving Tenofovir at Mulago: a cross-sectional study.BMC Nephrol. 2020 Jun 22; 21(1):232.BN
There is an increasing burden of non-communicable disease globally. Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is the most commonly prescribed antiretroviral drug globally. Studies show that patients receiving TDF are more prone to renal dysfunction at some point in time during treatment. Evaluation of kidney function is not routinely done in most HIV public clinics. Identification of renal dysfunction is key in resource constrained settings because managing patients with end stage renal disease is costly.
This was a cross-sectional study conducted at an outpatient clinic in 2018 involving patients on TDF for at least 6 months who were 18 years or older. Patients with documented kidney disease and pregnancy were excluded. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated using the CKD-Epi formula. Renal dysfunction was defined as any of the following; either eGFR< 60 mL/min/1.73m2,or proteinuria of ≥2+ on urine dipstick, glycosuria with normal blood glucose. Electrolyte abnormalities were also documented.
We enrolled 278 participants. One hundred sixty nine (60.8%) were females, majority 234(84.2%) were < 50 years old, 205 (73.74%) were in WHO stage 1, most participants 271(97.5%) in addition to TDF were receiving lamivudine/efavirenz. The median age was 37(IQR 29-45) years; median duration on ART was 36 (IQR 24-60) months. The prevalence of renal dysfunction was 2.52% (7/278). Most noted electrolyte abnormality was hypocalcaemia (15.44%).
The prevalence of renal dysfunction was low though some participants had hypocalcaemia. Screening for kidney disease should be done in symptomatic HIV infected patients on TDF.