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Highlight of Immune Pathogenic Response and Hematopathologic Effect in SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-Cov-2 Infection.
Front Immunol. 2020; 11:1022.FI

Abstract

A sudden outbreak of COVID-19 caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, in Wuhan, China in December 2019 quickly grew into a global pandemic, putting at risk not only the global healthcare system, but also the world economy. As the disease continues to spread rapidly, the development of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches is urgently required. Although some progress has been made in understanding the viral structure and invasion mechanism of coronaviruses that may cause severe cases of the syndrome, due to the limited understanding of the immune effects caused by SARS-CoV-2, it is difficult for us to prevent patients from developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary fibrosis (PF), the major complications of coronavirus infection. Therefore, any potential treatments should focus not only on direct killing of coronaviruses and prevention strategies by vaccine development, but also on keeping in check the acute immune/inflammatory responses, resulting in ARDS and PF. In addition, potential treatments currently under clinical trials focusing on killing coronaviruses or on developing vaccines preventing coronavirus infection largely ignore the host immune response. However, taking care of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients with ARDS and PF is considered to be the major difficulty. Therefore, further understanding of the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is extremely important for clinical resolution and saving medication cost. In addition to a breif overview of the structure, infection mechanism, and possible therapeutic approaches, we summarized and compared the hematopathologic effect and immune responses to SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. We also discussed the indirect immune response caused by SARS and direct infection, replication, and destroying of immune cells by MERS-CoV. The molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infection-induced lymphopenia or cytokine storm may provide some hint toward fight against SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus. This may provide guidance over using immune therapy as a combined treatment to prevent patients developing severe respiratory syndrome and largely reduce complications.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Department of Life Sciences and Institute of Genomic Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Institute of Food Safety and Health Risk Assessment, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. Institute of Pharmacology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. Department of Chest Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.Department of Life Sciences and Institute of Genomic Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. Department of Pediatrics, Renai Branch, Taipei City Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan.Institute of Microbiology and Immunology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.Department of Medical Research, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. Institute of Pharmacology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. Genomic Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32574260

Citation

Liang, Yanwen, et al. "Highlight of Immune Pathogenic Response and Hematopathologic Effect in SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-Cov-2 Infection." Frontiers in Immunology, vol. 11, 2020, p. 1022.
Liang Y, Wang ML, Chien CS, et al. Highlight of Immune Pathogenic Response and Hematopathologic Effect in SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-Cov-2 Infection. Front Immunol. 2020;11:1022.
Liang, Y., Wang, M. L., Chien, C. S., Yarmishyn, A. A., Yang, Y. P., Lai, W. Y., Luo, Y. H., Lin, Y. T., Chen, Y. J., Chang, P. C., & Chiou, S. H. (2020). Highlight of Immune Pathogenic Response and Hematopathologic Effect in SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-Cov-2 Infection. Frontiers in Immunology, 11, 1022. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01022
Liang Y, et al. Highlight of Immune Pathogenic Response and Hematopathologic Effect in SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-Cov-2 Infection. Front Immunol. 2020;11:1022. PubMed PMID: 32574260.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Highlight of Immune Pathogenic Response and Hematopathologic Effect in SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-Cov-2 Infection. AU - Liang,Yanwen, AU - Wang,Mong-Lien, AU - Chien,Chian-Shiu, AU - Yarmishyn,Aliaksandr A, AU - Yang,Yi-Ping, AU - Lai,Wei-Yi, AU - Luo,Yung-Hung, AU - Lin,Yi-Tsung, AU - Chen,Yann-Jang, AU - Chang,Pei-Ching, AU - Chiou,Shih-Hwa, Y1 - 2020/05/12/ PY - 2020/03/30/received PY - 2020/04/28/accepted PY - 2020/6/24/entrez PY - 2020/6/24/pubmed PY - 2020/7/11/medline KW - MERS-CoV KW - SARS-CoV KW - SARS-CoV-2 KW - hematopathologic effect KW - immune responses KW - immune therapy SP - 1022 EP - 1022 JF - Frontiers in immunology JO - Front Immunol VL - 11 N2 - A sudden outbreak of COVID-19 caused by a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, in Wuhan, China in December 2019 quickly grew into a global pandemic, putting at risk not only the global healthcare system, but also the world economy. As the disease continues to spread rapidly, the development of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches is urgently required. Although some progress has been made in understanding the viral structure and invasion mechanism of coronaviruses that may cause severe cases of the syndrome, due to the limited understanding of the immune effects caused by SARS-CoV-2, it is difficult for us to prevent patients from developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and pulmonary fibrosis (PF), the major complications of coronavirus infection. Therefore, any potential treatments should focus not only on direct killing of coronaviruses and prevention strategies by vaccine development, but also on keeping in check the acute immune/inflammatory responses, resulting in ARDS and PF. In addition, potential treatments currently under clinical trials focusing on killing coronaviruses or on developing vaccines preventing coronavirus infection largely ignore the host immune response. However, taking care of SARS-CoV-2 infected patients with ARDS and PF is considered to be the major difficulty. Therefore, further understanding of the host immune response to SARS-CoV-2 is extremely important for clinical resolution and saving medication cost. In addition to a breif overview of the structure, infection mechanism, and possible therapeutic approaches, we summarized and compared the hematopathologic effect and immune responses to SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2. We also discussed the indirect immune response caused by SARS and direct infection, replication, and destroying of immune cells by MERS-CoV. The molecular mechanisms of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infection-induced lymphopenia or cytokine storm may provide some hint toward fight against SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus. This may provide guidance over using immune therapy as a combined treatment to prevent patients developing severe respiratory syndrome and largely reduce complications. SN - 1664-3224 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32574260/Highlight_of_Immune_Pathogenic_Response_and_Hematopathologic_Effect_in_SARS_CoV_MERS_CoV_and_SARS_Cov_2_Infection_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.01022 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -