Treatment of recurrent renal transplant lithiasis: analysis of our experience and review of the relevant literature.BMC Nephrol. 2020 Jun 23; 21(1):238.BN
Renal transplant lithiasis is a rather unusual disease, and the recurrence of lithiasis presents a challenging situation.
We retrospectively analyzed the medical history of one patient who suffered renal transplant lithiasis twice, reviewed the relevant literature, and summarized the characteristics of this disease.
We retrieved 29 relevant studies with an incidence of 0.34 to 3.26% for renal transplant lithiasis. The summarized incidence was 0.52%, and the recurrence rate was 0.082%. The mean interval after transplantation was 33.43 ± 56.70 mo. Most of the patients (28.90%) were asymptomatic. The management included percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL, 22.10%), ureteroscope (URS, 22.65%), extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL, 18.60%) and conservative treatment (17.13%). In our case, the patient suffered from renal transplant lithiasis at 6 years posttransplantation, and the lithiasis recurred 16 months later. He presented oliguria, infection or acute renal failure (ARF) during the two attacks but without pain. PCNL along with URS and holmium laser lithotripsy were performed. The patient recovered well after surgery, except for a 3 mm residual stone in the calyx after the second surgery. He had normal renal function without any symptoms and was discharged with oral anticalculus drugs and strict follow-up at the clinic. Fortunately, the calculus passed spontaneously about 1 month later.
Due to the lack of specific symptoms in the early stage, patients with renal transplant lithiasis may have delayed diagnosis and present ARF. Minimally invasive treatment is optimal, and the combined usage of two or more procedures is beneficial for patients. After surgery, taking anticalculus drugs, correcting metabolic disorders and avoiding UIT are key measures to prevent the recurrence of lithiasis.