Is endoscopic resection appropriate for type 3 gastric neuroendocrine tumors? A retrospective multicenter study.Dig Endosc. 2020 Jun 23 [Online ahead of print]DE
Gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy is recommended for type 3 gastric neuroendocrine tumors (G-NETs). This study aimed to identify the risk factors for lymph node metastasis (LNM) arising from G-NETs to assess the suitability of endoscopic resection (ER).
Nationwide clinicopathological data of patients with type 3 G-NETs who underwent surgery or ER were collected. A single pathologist graded the histological tumor specimens.
Among 176 cases from 53 institutions, 144 were eligible for analysis (90 NET-G1 and 54 NET-G2 grade, 8-mm median-size tumors). Of these, 63 patients had undergone ER (15 with additional surgeries). Histological data regarding LNM were available for 93 surgical patients. LNM was confirmed in 15 (16%) tumors and was correlated with tumor diameter, invasion depth, and tumor grade. LNM was negative in 6 tumors ≤5 mm, confined to the mucosa or submucosa, with a grade of G1, and without lymphovascular invasion, but the number of cases was too small to propose ER indications. Among 48 patients treated with ER alone, only 1 developed recurrence; no mortality was observed at follow-up, although many patients were classified with SM2/NET-G2/tumors >5 mm. This suggests that not all LNMs arising from small G-NETs are fatal.
Gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy for Type 3 G-NETs is recommended on the basis of lymph node metastasis. However, ER for type 3 G-NETs ≤10 mm, confined to the mucosa or submucosa, with a grade of G1 has shown excellent survival outcomes despite the risk of LNM, and therefore, could be an alternative treatment option.