Stability of the Antimicrobial Capacity of Human Milk Against Cronobacter Sakazakii During Handling.J Hum Lact. 2020 Jun 24 [Online ahead of print]JH
Neonatal infections with Cronobacter sakazakii have recently been associated with the consumption of expressed human milk.
(1) To evaluate whether human milk has antimicrobial capacity against C. sakazakii and (2) to determine the stability of its capacity when it is subjected to various treatments.
The antimicrobial capacity of human milk against C. sakazakii was evaluated using an observational, cross-sectional, comparative design. Mature human milk samples (N = 29) were subjected to different treatments. After incubation at 37°C for 72 hr, samples were compared with fresh milk on the stability of their antimicrobial capacity. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed.
In fresh milk, counts of C. sakazakii were reduced by 47.26% (SD = 6.74) compared to controls. In treated milk, reductions were: refrigeration at 4°C for 72 hr (M = 33.84, SD = 13.84), freezing at -20°C for 1, 2, and 3 months (M = 40.31, SD = 9.10; M = 35.96, SD = 9.39; M = 26.20, SD = 13.55, respectively), Holder pasteurization (M = 23.56, SD = 15.61), and human milk bank treatment with (M = 14.37, SD = 18.02) and without bovine fortifier (M = 3.70, SD = 23.83). There were significant differences (p < .05) between fresh and treated milk.
Human milk has antimicrobial capacity against C. sakazakii. However, its capacity is negatively influenced by common preservation and hygienization methods. Milk should be stored refrigerated for a maximum of 72 hr or frozen for a short period of time.