Radiation protection by Ex-RAD: a systematic review.Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Jun 25 [Online ahead of print]ES
Protection of normal tissues against ionizing radiation-induced damages is a critical issue in clinical and environmental radiobiology. One of the ways of accomplishing radiation protection is through the use of radioprotectors. In the search for the most effective radioprotective agent, factors such as toxicity, effect on tumors, number of tissues protected, ease of administration, long-term stability, and compatibility with other drugs need to be assessed. Thus, in the present study, we systematically review existing studies on a chemical radioprotector, Ex-RAD, with the aim of examining its efficacy of radiation protection as well as underlying mechanisms. To this end, a systematic search of the electronic databases including Pubmed, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar was conducted to retrieve articles investigating the radioprotective effect of Ex-RAD. From an initial search of 268 articles, and after removal of duplicates as well as applying the predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 articles were finally included for this systematic review. Findings from the reviewed studies indicated that Ex-RAD showed potentials for effective radioprotection of the studied organs with no side effect. Furthermore, the inhibition of apoptosis through p53 signaling pathway was the main mechanism of radioprotection by Ex-RAD. However, its radioprotective effect would need to be investigated for more organs in future studies.