Management and outcomes of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteremia in patients without cystic fibrosis: a retrospective observational study.Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2020 Jun 25 [Online ahead of print]EJ
Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) is an emerging pathogen of nosocomial infection in chronic or critically ill patients without cystic fibrosis (CF). The objective was to evaluate the management and outcomes of BCC bacteremia in patients without CF. We conducted a retrospective study of non-CF adult patients with BCC bacteremia between January 1997 and December 2016 at 4 tertiary hospitals in South Korea. A total of 216 non-CF patients with BCC bacteremia were identified. Most cases were hospital-acquired (79.2%), and the most common source was a central venous catheter (CVC) (42.1%). The rates of susceptibility to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and piperacillin-tazobactam of BCC isolates were high as 92.8% and 90.3%, respectively. The rates of susceptibility to ceftazidime, meropenem, and levofloxacin were 75.5%, 72.3%, and 64.1%, respectively. The 14-day, 30-day, and in-hospital mortality rate was 19.4%, 23.1%, and 31.0%, respectively. Female (OR = 3.1; 95% CI, 1.4-6.8), liver cirrhosis (OR = 6.2; 95% CI, 1.6-16.6), septic shock (OR = 11.2; 95% CI, 5.1-24.8), and catheter-related infection (OR = 2.6, 95% CI, 1.2-5.8) were the independent risk factors for 30-day mortality. The outcome did not differ according to type of antibiotics used. Among 91 patients with CVC-related BCC bacteremia, delayed CVC removal (> 3 days) had a higher rate of persistent bacteremia (54.5 vs. 26.1%; P = 0.03) and lower rate of clinical response (49.0 vs. 71.9%; P = 0.04), compared with early CVC removal (within 3 days). BCC bacteremia occurring in non-CF patients was mostly hospital-acquired and CVC-related. Early removal of the catheter is crucial in treatment of CVC-related BCC bacteremia.