Treatment of primary hyperaldosteronism.Med Clin (Barc). 2020 10 09; 155(7):302-308.MC
Primary aldosteronism is associated with higher cardiovascular and renal morbidity and mortality than essential hypertension in age- and sex-matched patients with the same degree of blood pressure elevation. Therefore, it is essential to establish a specific treatment to avoid the deleterious effects of aldosterone excess. Although adrenalectomy is generally considered the treatment of choice in cases of primary aldosteronism due to unilateral disease, several aspects and circumstances should be taken into account that may make medical treatment more appropriate. Among them, in this review we mention the limited experience and efficacy, and the potential risks of adrenal vein sampling; the risks and low efficacy of adrenalectomy; the high safety and efficacy of medical treatment and some special situations such as primary aldosteronism during pregnancy, in patients of advanced age or hereditary forms of primary aldosteronism, in which medical treatment is considered especially indicated as the first line therapy. The main studies comparing medical and surgical treatment in primary aldosteronism are also discussed.