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Roles of motor and cortical activity in sleep rebound in rat.
Eur J Neurosci. 2020 Jun 25 [Online ahead of print]EJ

Abstract

Sleep pressure that builds up gradually during the extended wakefulness results in sleep rebound. Several lines of evidence, however, suggest that wake per se may not be sufficient to drive sleep rebound and that rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep rebound may be differentially regulated. In this study, we investigated the relative contribution of brain vs physical activities in REM and NREM sleep rebound by four sets of experiments. First, we forced locomotion in rats in a rotating wheel for 4 hours and examined subsequent sleep rebound. Second, we exposed the rats lacking homeostatic sleep response after prolonged quiet wakefulness and arousal brain activity induced by chemoactivation of parabrachial nucleus to the same rotating wheel paradigm and tested if physical activity could rescue the sleep homeostasis. Third, we varied motor activity levels while concurrently inhibiting the cortical activity by administering ketamine or xylazine (motor inhibitor), or ketamine + xylazine mixture and investigated if motor activity in the absence of activated cortex can cause NREM sleep rebound. Fourth and finally, we manipulated cortical activity by administering ketamine (that induced active wakefulness and waking brain) alone or in combination with atropine (that selectively causes cortical inhibition) and studied if cortical inhibition irrespective of motor activity levels can block the REM sleep rebound. Our results demonstrate that motor activity but not cortical activity determines the occurrence of NREM sleep rebound whereas cortical activity but not motor activity determines REM sleep rebound.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Ningxia Key Laboratory of Craniocerebral Diseases, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, China.Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Department of Neurology, Department of Neurology and Neuroscience Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China.Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Ningxia Key Laboratory of Craniocerebral Diseases, Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Ningxia Medical University, Yinchuan, Ningxia, China.Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.Department of Neurology, Department of Neurology and Neuroscience Center, The First Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, China.Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.Department of Neurology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32588491

Citation

Wen, Yujun, et al. "Roles of Motor and Cortical Activity in Sleep Rebound in Rat." The European Journal of Neuroscience, 2020.
Wen Y, Lv Y, Niu J, et al. Roles of motor and cortical activity in sleep rebound in rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2020.
Wen, Y., Lv, Y., Niu, J., Xin, C., Cui, L., Vetrivelan, R., & Lu, J. (2020). Roles of motor and cortical activity in sleep rebound in rat. The European Journal of Neuroscience. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14881
Wen Y, et al. Roles of Motor and Cortical Activity in Sleep Rebound in Rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2020 Jun 25; PubMed PMID: 32588491.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Roles of motor and cortical activity in sleep rebound in rat. AU - Wen,Yujun, AU - Lv,Yudan, AU - Niu,Jianguo, AU - Xin,Christopher, AU - Cui,Li, AU - Vetrivelan,Ramalingam, AU - Lu,Jun, Y1 - 2020/06/25/ PY - 2020/6/27/entrez PY - 2020/6/27/pubmed PY - 2020/6/27/medline KW - cortical activity KW - locomotion KW - parabrachial nucleus KW - quiet wakefulness KW - sleep homeostasis JF - The European journal of neuroscience JO - Eur. J. Neurosci. N2 - Sleep pressure that builds up gradually during the extended wakefulness results in sleep rebound. Several lines of evidence, however, suggest that wake per se may not be sufficient to drive sleep rebound and that rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep rebound may be differentially regulated. In this study, we investigated the relative contribution of brain vs physical activities in REM and NREM sleep rebound by four sets of experiments. First, we forced locomotion in rats in a rotating wheel for 4 hours and examined subsequent sleep rebound. Second, we exposed the rats lacking homeostatic sleep response after prolonged quiet wakefulness and arousal brain activity induced by chemoactivation of parabrachial nucleus to the same rotating wheel paradigm and tested if physical activity could rescue the sleep homeostasis. Third, we varied motor activity levels while concurrently inhibiting the cortical activity by administering ketamine or xylazine (motor inhibitor), or ketamine + xylazine mixture and investigated if motor activity in the absence of activated cortex can cause NREM sleep rebound. Fourth and finally, we manipulated cortical activity by administering ketamine (that induced active wakefulness and waking brain) alone or in combination with atropine (that selectively causes cortical inhibition) and studied if cortical inhibition irrespective of motor activity levels can block the REM sleep rebound. Our results demonstrate that motor activity but not cortical activity determines the occurrence of NREM sleep rebound whereas cortical activity but not motor activity determines REM sleep rebound. SN - 1460-9568 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32588491/Roles_of_motor_and_cortical_activity_in_sleep_rebound_in_rat L2 - https://doi.org/10.1111/ejn.14881 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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