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Global Changes and Factors of Increase in Caloric/Salty Food Intake, Screen Use, and Substance Use During the Early COVID-19 Containment Phase in the General Population in France: Survey Study.
JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2020 09 18; 6(3):e19630.JP

Abstract

BACKGROUND

The international outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has led many countries to enforce drastic containment measures. It has been suggested that this abrupt lockdown of populations will foster addiction-related habits such as caloric/salty food intake, screen use, and substance use.

OBJECTIVE

Our aim was to assess the global changes and factors of increase in addiction-related habits during the early COVID-19 containment phase in France.

METHODS

A web-based survey was provided from day 8 to day 13 of the containment and was completed by 11,391 participants. The questions explored sociodemographic features, psychiatric/addiction history, material conditions of lockdown, general stress, mental well-being, and reported changes in several addiction-related behaviors. Global changes were described and factors of increase were explored using population-weighted and adjusted logistic regression models, providing adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and their 95% confidence intervals.

RESULTS

Overall, the respondents reported more increases in addiction-related habits than decreases, specifically 28.4% (caloric/salty food intake), 64.6% (screen use), 35.6% (tobacco use), 24.8% (alcohol use), and 31.2% (cannabis use). Reduced well-being scores and increased stress scores were general factors of increase in addiction-related habits (P<.001 for all habits). Factors of increase in caloric/salty food intake (n=10,771) were female gender (aOR 1.62, 95% CI 1.48-1.77), age less than 29 years (P<.001), having a partner (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06-1.35), being locked down in a more confined space (per 1 square meter/person decrease: aOR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03), being locked down alone (aOR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11-1.49), and reporting current (aOR 1.94, 95% CI 1.62-2.31) or past (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.09-1.47) psychiatric treatment. Factors of increase in screen use (n=11,267) were female gender (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.21-1.43), age less than 29 years (P<.001), having no partner (aOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.06-1.32), being employed (P<.001), intermediate/high education level (P<.001), being locked down with no access to an outdoor space (aOR 1.16, 95% CI 1.05-1.29), being locked down alone (aOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01-1.32), living in an urban environment (P<.01), and not working (P<.001). Factors of increase in tobacco use (n=2787) were female gender (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.11-1.55), having no partner (aOR 1.30, 95% CI 1.06-1.59), intermediate/low education level (P<.01), and still working in the workplace (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.17-1.86). Factors of increase in alcohol use (n=7108) were age 30-49 years (P<.05), a high level of education (P<.001), and current psychiatric treatment (aOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.10-1.88). The only significant factor of increase in cannabis use (n=620) was intermediate/low level of education (P<.001).

CONCLUSIONS

The early phase of COVID-19 containment in France led to widespread increases in addiction-related habits in the general population. Reduced well-being and increased stress were universal factors of increase. More specific factors were associated with increases in each of the explored habits.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Service Universitaire d'Addictologie de Lyon, CH Le Vinatier, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France. Inserm U1028, CNRS UMR5292, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Bron, France.Centre Ressource de Réhabilitation Psychosociale, CH Le Vinatier, Lyon, France.Centre Ressource de Réhabilitation Psychosociale, CH Le Vinatier, Lyon, France.PSYCOMADD 4872, Université Paris-Saclay, Paris, France. CH Le Vinatier, Pôle Centre Rive Gauche, Bron, France.Service de recherche et d'épidémiologie, Pôle de santé publique, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.CH Le Vinatier, Pôle Centre Rive Gauche, Bron, France.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32589149

Citation

Rolland, Benjamin, et al. "Global Changes and Factors of Increase in Caloric/Salty Food Intake, Screen Use, and Substance Use During the Early COVID-19 Containment Phase in the General Population in France: Survey Study." JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, vol. 6, no. 3, 2020, pp. e19630.
Rolland B, Haesebaert F, Zante E, et al. Global Changes and Factors of Increase in Caloric/Salty Food Intake, Screen Use, and Substance Use During the Early COVID-19 Containment Phase in the General Population in France: Survey Study. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2020;6(3):e19630.
Rolland, B., Haesebaert, F., Zante, E., Benyamina, A., Haesebaert, J., & Franck, N. (2020). Global Changes and Factors of Increase in Caloric/Salty Food Intake, Screen Use, and Substance Use During the Early COVID-19 Containment Phase in the General Population in France: Survey Study. JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, 6(3), e19630. https://doi.org/10.2196/19630
Rolland B, et al. Global Changes and Factors of Increase in Caloric/Salty Food Intake, Screen Use, and Substance Use During the Early COVID-19 Containment Phase in the General Population in France: Survey Study. JMIR Public Health Surveill. 2020 09 18;6(3):e19630. PubMed PMID: 32589149.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Global Changes and Factors of Increase in Caloric/Salty Food Intake, Screen Use, and Substance Use During the Early COVID-19 Containment Phase in the General Population in France: Survey Study. AU - Rolland,Benjamin, AU - Haesebaert,Frédéric, AU - Zante,Elodie, AU - Benyamina,Amine, AU - Haesebaert,Julie, AU - Franck,Nicolas, Y1 - 2020/09/18/ PY - 2020/04/26/received PY - 2020/06/25/accepted PY - 2020/05/18/revised PY - 2020/6/27/pubmed PY - 2020/10/3/medline PY - 2020/6/27/entrez KW - COVID-19 KW - addiction KW - containment KW - eating behaviors KW - internet use KW - lifestyle KW - mental health KW - online survey KW - pandemic KW - public health KW - screen use KW - substance use SP - e19630 EP - e19630 JF - JMIR public health and surveillance JO - JMIR Public Health Surveill VL - 6 IS - 3 N2 - BACKGROUND: The international outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has led many countries to enforce drastic containment measures. It has been suggested that this abrupt lockdown of populations will foster addiction-related habits such as caloric/salty food intake, screen use, and substance use. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the global changes and factors of increase in addiction-related habits during the early COVID-19 containment phase in France. METHODS: A web-based survey was provided from day 8 to day 13 of the containment and was completed by 11,391 participants. The questions explored sociodemographic features, psychiatric/addiction history, material conditions of lockdown, general stress, mental well-being, and reported changes in several addiction-related behaviors. Global changes were described and factors of increase were explored using population-weighted and adjusted logistic regression models, providing adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and their 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Overall, the respondents reported more increases in addiction-related habits than decreases, specifically 28.4% (caloric/salty food intake), 64.6% (screen use), 35.6% (tobacco use), 24.8% (alcohol use), and 31.2% (cannabis use). Reduced well-being scores and increased stress scores were general factors of increase in addiction-related habits (P<.001 for all habits). Factors of increase in caloric/salty food intake (n=10,771) were female gender (aOR 1.62, 95% CI 1.48-1.77), age less than 29 years (P<.001), having a partner (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06-1.35), being locked down in a more confined space (per 1 square meter/person decrease: aOR 1.02, 95% CI 1.01-1.03), being locked down alone (aOR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11-1.49), and reporting current (aOR 1.94, 95% CI 1.62-2.31) or past (aOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.09-1.47) psychiatric treatment. Factors of increase in screen use (n=11,267) were female gender (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.21-1.43), age less than 29 years (P<.001), having no partner (aOR 1.18, 95% CI 1.06-1.32), being employed (P<.001), intermediate/high education level (P<.001), being locked down with no access to an outdoor space (aOR 1.16, 95% CI 1.05-1.29), being locked down alone (aOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.01-1.32), living in an urban environment (P<.01), and not working (P<.001). Factors of increase in tobacco use (n=2787) were female gender (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.11-1.55), having no partner (aOR 1.30, 95% CI 1.06-1.59), intermediate/low education level (P<.01), and still working in the workplace (aOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.17-1.86). Factors of increase in alcohol use (n=7108) were age 30-49 years (P<.05), a high level of education (P<.001), and current psychiatric treatment (aOR 1.44, 95% CI 1.10-1.88). The only significant factor of increase in cannabis use (n=620) was intermediate/low level of education (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: The early phase of COVID-19 containment in France led to widespread increases in addiction-related habits in the general population. Reduced well-being and increased stress were universal factors of increase. More specific factors were associated with increases in each of the explored habits. SN - 2369-2960 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32589149/Global_Changes_and_Factors_of_Increase_in_Caloric/Salty_Food_Intake_Screen_Use_and_Substance_Use_During_the_Early_COVID_19_Containment_Phase_in_the_General_Population_in_France:_Survey_Study_ L2 - https://publichealth.jmir.org/2020/3/e19630/ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -