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Persistence of Bacteriophage Phi 6 on Porous and Nonporous Surfaces and the Potential for Its Use as an Ebola Virus or Coronavirus Surrogate.
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2020 08 18; 86(17)AE

Abstract

The infection of health care workers during the 2013 to 2016 Ebola outbreak raised concerns about fomite transmission. In the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, investigations are ongoing to determine the role of fomites in coronavirus transmission as well. The bacteriophage phi 6 has a phospholipid envelope and is commonly used in environmental studies as a surrogate for human enveloped viruses. The persistence of phi 6 was evaluated as a surrogate for Ebola virus (EBOV) and coronaviruses on porous and nonporous hospital surfaces. Phi 6 was suspended in a body fluid simulant and inoculated onto 1-cm2 coupons of steel, plastic, and two fabric curtain types. The coupons were placed at two controlled absolute humidity (AH) levels: a low AH of 3.0 g/m3 and a high AH of 14.4 g/m3 Phi 6 declined at a lower rate on all materials under low-AH conditions, with a decay rate of 0.06-log10 PFU/day to 0.11-log10 PFU/day, than under the higher AH conditions, with a decay rate of 0.65-log10 PFU/h to 1.42-log10 PFU/day. There was a significant difference in decay rates between porous and nonporous surfaces at both low AH (P < 0.0001) and high AH (P < 0.0001). Under these laboratory-simulated conditions, phi 6 was found to be a conservative surrogate for EBOV under low-AH conditions in that it persisted longer than Ebola virus in similar AH conditions. Additionally, some coronaviruses persist longer than phi 6 under similar conditions; therefore, phi 6 may not be a suitable surrogate for coronaviruses.IMPORTANCE Understanding the persistence of enveloped viruses helps inform infection control practices and procedures in health care facilities and community settings. These data convey to public health investigators that enveloped viruses can persist and remain infective on surfaces, thus demonstrating a potential risk for transmission. Under these laboratory-simulated Western indoor hospital conditions, we assessed the suitability of phi 6 as a surrogate for environmental persistence research related to enveloped viruses, including EBOV and coronaviruses.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA vyu1@cdc.gov.Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32591388

Citation

Whitworth, Carrie, et al. "Persistence of Bacteriophage Phi 6 On Porous and Nonporous Surfaces and the Potential for Its Use as an Ebola Virus or Coronavirus Surrogate." Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 86, no. 17, 2020.
Whitworth C, Mu Y, Houston H, et al. Persistence of Bacteriophage Phi 6 on Porous and Nonporous Surfaces and the Potential for Its Use as an Ebola Virus or Coronavirus Surrogate. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2020;86(17).
Whitworth, C., Mu, Y., Houston, H., Martinez-Smith, M., Noble-Wang, J., Coulliette-Salmond, A., & Rose, L. (2020). Persistence of Bacteriophage Phi 6 on Porous and Nonporous Surfaces and the Potential for Its Use as an Ebola Virus or Coronavirus Surrogate. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 86(17). https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01482-20
Whitworth C, et al. Persistence of Bacteriophage Phi 6 On Porous and Nonporous Surfaces and the Potential for Its Use as an Ebola Virus or Coronavirus Surrogate. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2020 08 18;86(17) PubMed PMID: 32591388.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Persistence of Bacteriophage Phi 6 on Porous and Nonporous Surfaces and the Potential for Its Use as an Ebola Virus or Coronavirus Surrogate. AU - Whitworth,Carrie, AU - Mu,Yi, AU - Houston,Hollis, AU - Martinez-Smith,Marla, AU - Noble-Wang,Judith, AU - Coulliette-Salmond,Angela, AU - Rose,Laura, Y1 - 2020/08/18/ PY - 2020/06/22/received PY - 2020/06/24/accepted PY - 2020/6/28/pubmed PY - 2020/9/2/medline PY - 2020/6/28/entrez KW - Ebola virus KW - coronavirus KW - enveloped viruses KW - environmental microbiology KW - health care transmission KW - phi 6 bacteriophage KW - public health KW - surface persistence KW - surrogate KW - virology JF - Applied and environmental microbiology JO - Appl Environ Microbiol VL - 86 IS - 17 N2 - The infection of health care workers during the 2013 to 2016 Ebola outbreak raised concerns about fomite transmission. In the wake of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, investigations are ongoing to determine the role of fomites in coronavirus transmission as well. The bacteriophage phi 6 has a phospholipid envelope and is commonly used in environmental studies as a surrogate for human enveloped viruses. The persistence of phi 6 was evaluated as a surrogate for Ebola virus (EBOV) and coronaviruses on porous and nonporous hospital surfaces. Phi 6 was suspended in a body fluid simulant and inoculated onto 1-cm2 coupons of steel, plastic, and two fabric curtain types. The coupons were placed at two controlled absolute humidity (AH) levels: a low AH of 3.0 g/m3 and a high AH of 14.4 g/m3 Phi 6 declined at a lower rate on all materials under low-AH conditions, with a decay rate of 0.06-log10 PFU/day to 0.11-log10 PFU/day, than under the higher AH conditions, with a decay rate of 0.65-log10 PFU/h to 1.42-log10 PFU/day. There was a significant difference in decay rates between porous and nonporous surfaces at both low AH (P < 0.0001) and high AH (P < 0.0001). Under these laboratory-simulated conditions, phi 6 was found to be a conservative surrogate for EBOV under low-AH conditions in that it persisted longer than Ebola virus in similar AH conditions. Additionally, some coronaviruses persist longer than phi 6 under similar conditions; therefore, phi 6 may not be a suitable surrogate for coronaviruses.IMPORTANCE Understanding the persistence of enveloped viruses helps inform infection control practices and procedures in health care facilities and community settings. These data convey to public health investigators that enveloped viruses can persist and remain infective on surfaces, thus demonstrating a potential risk for transmission. Under these laboratory-simulated Western indoor hospital conditions, we assessed the suitability of phi 6 as a surrogate for environmental persistence research related to enveloped viruses, including EBOV and coronaviruses. SN - 1098-5336 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32591388/Persistence_of_Bacteriophage_Phi_6_on_Porous_and_Nonporous_Surfaces_and_the_Potential_for_Its_Use_as_an_Ebola_Virus_or_Coronavirus_Surrogate_ L2 - http://aem.asm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&amp;pmid=32591388 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -