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Ecotoxic interactions between pharmaceuticals in mixtures: Diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole.
Chemosphere. 2020 Jun 16; 259:127407.C

Abstract

The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of two pharmaceuticals, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole, and their binary mixture on aquatic organisms, marine bacteria Aliivibrio fischeri, crustacean Daphnia magna, and vascular plant Lemna minor. The binary mixture of the drugs showed the highest toxicity towards the model organisms. Diclofenac had an average toxicity which posed a high environmental risk to aquatic organisms, while sulfamethoxazole was characterized by a low toxicity with low environmental risk. The organism most sensitive to diclofenac was A. fischeri (IC50 = 8.72 ± 1.14 mg L-1) and for sulfamethoxazole and the binary mixture, it was L. minor (IC50 = 12.56 ± 4.48 and 4.83 ± 0.43 mg L-1, respectively). The toxicity of the mixture was predicted using the Concentration Addition and Independent Action models, and the results were compared with the experimental data. None of the models suitably predicted the real toxicity of the pharmaceutical mixture. Interactions between the mixture components were confirmed by calculating the mixture toxicity index values which showed that the pharmaceuticals displayed synergistic or partial additive effects which depended on the selected test organism and test duration. When added as a complex matrix to wastewater (at a concentration of 2 mg L-1 each), the pharmaceuticals did not display increased toxicity. This observation confirms that the presence of micro-contaminants in aquatic environments may cause interactions between different compounds, the results of which are difficult to predict and model.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Silesian University of Technology, The Biotechnology Center, Gliwice, Poland. Electronic address: justyna.drzymala@polsl.pl.Silesian University of Technology, Environmental Biotechnology Department, Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Gliwice, Poland.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

32593821

Citation

Drzymała, J, and J Kalka. "Ecotoxic Interactions Between Pharmaceuticals in Mixtures: Diclofenac and Sulfamethoxazole." Chemosphere, vol. 259, 2020, p. 127407.
Drzymała J, Kalka J. Ecotoxic interactions between pharmaceuticals in mixtures: Diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole. Chemosphere. 2020;259:127407.
Drzymała, J., & Kalka, J. (2020). Ecotoxic interactions between pharmaceuticals in mixtures: Diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole. Chemosphere, 259, 127407. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127407
Drzymała J, Kalka J. Ecotoxic Interactions Between Pharmaceuticals in Mixtures: Diclofenac and Sulfamethoxazole. Chemosphere. 2020 Jun 16;259:127407. PubMed PMID: 32593821.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Ecotoxic interactions between pharmaceuticals in mixtures: Diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole. AU - Drzymała,J, AU - Kalka,J, Y1 - 2020/06/16/ PY - 2020/03/03/received PY - 2020/06/10/revised PY - 2020/06/11/accepted PY - 2020/7/1/pubmed PY - 2020/7/1/medline PY - 2020/6/29/entrez KW - Aliivibrio fischeri KW - Aquatic toxicity KW - Daphnia magna KW - Lemna minor KW - Mixture toxicity KW - Pharmaceuticals SP - 127407 EP - 127407 JF - Chemosphere JO - Chemosphere VL - 259 N2 - The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of two pharmaceuticals, diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole, and their binary mixture on aquatic organisms, marine bacteria Aliivibrio fischeri, crustacean Daphnia magna, and vascular plant Lemna minor. The binary mixture of the drugs showed the highest toxicity towards the model organisms. Diclofenac had an average toxicity which posed a high environmental risk to aquatic organisms, while sulfamethoxazole was characterized by a low toxicity with low environmental risk. The organism most sensitive to diclofenac was A. fischeri (IC50 = 8.72 ± 1.14 mg L-1) and for sulfamethoxazole and the binary mixture, it was L. minor (IC50 = 12.56 ± 4.48 and 4.83 ± 0.43 mg L-1, respectively). The toxicity of the mixture was predicted using the Concentration Addition and Independent Action models, and the results were compared with the experimental data. None of the models suitably predicted the real toxicity of the pharmaceutical mixture. Interactions between the mixture components were confirmed by calculating the mixture toxicity index values which showed that the pharmaceuticals displayed synergistic or partial additive effects which depended on the selected test organism and test duration. When added as a complex matrix to wastewater (at a concentration of 2 mg L-1 each), the pharmaceuticals did not display increased toxicity. This observation confirms that the presence of micro-contaminants in aquatic environments may cause interactions between different compounds, the results of which are difficult to predict and model. SN - 1879-1298 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/32593821/Ecotoxic_interactions_between_pharmaceuticals_in_mixtures:_Diclofenac_and_sulfamethoxazole L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0045-6535(20)31601-5 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -
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