[Russian multicenter clinical trials in acute leukemias].Ter Arkh. 2019 Jul 15; 91(7):4-13.TA
The paper describes the results of 15 consecutive Russian clinical trials in the treatment of different types of acute leukemias, conducted by Russian cooperative group within the last 27-years and included more than 25 hundred patients. It was shown that the 5-years overall survival in AML younger than 60 years patients improved from 20 to 33%, in ALL - from 38 to 65%, in APL - from 0 to 95%. The cooperative work resulted in balanced clinical recommendations and protocols, reproducible in regional hospitals. Though till now there is a big difference in the long term outcome in acute leukemias patients treated in coordinating or regional centers mostly due to much higher early death rate: 7.5-9.5% vs 18-25%. This parameter should be used as criteria of the total efficacy of hematological service in each region of Russia. It became possible within the last years to integrate the minimal residual disease monitoring into clinical trials thus providing a clue parameter for choosing the further therapy - allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Non - chemotherapeutic approach with arsenic trioxide and all - trans retinoid acid had dramatically changed the toxicity and duration of treatment with very high efficacy. The Russian cooperative group was the first that started to include pregnant women with acute leukemias into clinical trials. This prospective and prolonged experience has shown that pregnancy in acute myeloid leukemia is an extremely poor prognostic factor, but it does not influence the outcome in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.